AWS CloudFormation
User Guide (API Version 2010-05-15)
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使用 AWS CloudFormation 在 Amazon EC2 上部署应用程序

您可以使用 AWS CloudFormation 来在 Amazon EC2 实例上自动安装、配置和启动应用程序。这样能让您轻松复制部署和更新现有安装而无需直接连接到该实例,从而为您节省大量时间和工作量。

AWS CloudFormation 包含一组基于 cloud-init 的帮助程序脚本(即:cfn-init、cfn-signal、cfn-get-metadata 和 cfn-hup)。您可从 AWS CloudFormation 模板中调用这些帮助程序脚本来在使用相同模板的 Amazon EC2 实例上安装、配置和更新应用程序。

以下演练描述了如何创建一个模板,该模板通过使用 cfn 帮助程序脚本来安装、配置和启动 Apache、MySQL 和 PHP,从而启动 LAMP 堆栈。您将从可设置运行 Amazon Linux 的基础 Amazon EC2 实例的简单模板入手,然后继续添加模板,直至描述为 LAMP 堆栈已满为止。

有关使用 AWS CloudFormation 部署应用程序的其他策略和示例,请参阅通过 AWS CloudFormation 启动应用程序一文。

基础 Amazon EC2 实例

您从基础模板开始,该模板定义了带有安全组的单个 Amazon EC2 实例。该安全组可允许 SSH 流量通过端口 22,HTTP 流量通过端口 80,如以下示例所示:

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation sample template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP, and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName": { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type": "AWS::EC2::KeyPair::KeyName", "ConstraintDescription" : "Can contain only ASCII characters." }, "InstanceType" : { "Description" : "WebServer EC2 instance type", "Type" : "String", "Default" : "m1.small", "AllowedValues" : [ "t1.micro", "t2.micro", "t2.small", "t2.medium", "m1.small", "m1.medium", "m1.large", "m1.xlarge", "m2.xlarge", "m2.2xlarge", "m2.4xlarge", "m3.medium", "m3.large", "m3.xlarge", "m3.2xlarge", "c1.medium", "c1.xlarge", "c3.large", "c3.xlarge", "c3.2xlarge", "c3.4xlarge", "c3.8xlarge", "g2.2xlarge", "r3.large", "r3.xlarge", "r3.2xlarge", "r3.4xlarge", "r3.8xlarge", "i2.xlarge", "i2.2xlarge", "i2.4xlarge", "i2.8xlarge", "hi1.4xlarge", "hs1.8xlarge", "cr1.8xlarge", "cc2.8xlarge", "cg1.4xlarge"], "ConstraintDescription" : "Must be a valid EC2 instance type" }, "SSHLocation" : { "Description" : "The IP address range that can be used to SSH to the EC2 instances", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "9", "MaxLength": "18", "Default": "0.0.0.0/0", "AllowedPattern": "(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})/(\\d{1,2})", "ConstraintDescription": "Must be a valid IP CIDR range of the form x.x.x.x/x" } }, "Mappings" : { "AWSInstanceType2Arch" : { "t1.micro" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "t2.micro" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.small" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m1.small" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.large" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m3.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "g2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVMG2" }, "r3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hi1.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hs1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cr1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cc2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" } }, "AWSRegionArch2AMI" : { "us-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-50842d38", "HVM64" : "ami-08842d60", "HVMG2" : "ami-3a329952" }, "us-west-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-af86c69f", "HVM64" : "ami-8786c6b7", "HVMG2" : "ami-47296a77" }, "us-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-c7a8a182", "HVM64" : "ami-cfa8a18a", "HVMG2" : "ami-331b1376" }, "eu-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-aa8f28dd", "HVM64" : "ami-748e2903", "HVMG2" : "ami-00913777" }, "ap-southeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-20e1c572", "HVM64" : "ami-d6e1c584", "HVMG2" : "ami-fabe9aa8" }, "ap-northeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-21072820", "HVM64" : "ami-35072834", "HVMG2" : "ami-5dd1ff5c" }, "ap-southeast-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-8b4724b1", "HVM64" : "ami-fd4724c7", "HVMG2" : "ami-e98ae9d3" }, "sa-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-9d6cc680", "HVM64" : "ami-956cc688", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "cn-north-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a857c591", "HVM64" : "ami-ac57c595", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "eu-central-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a03503bd", "HVM64" : "ami-b43503a9", "HVMG2" : "ami-b03503ad" } } }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup", "Properties" : { "GroupDescription" : "Enable HTTP access via port 80", "SecurityGroupIngress" : [ {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "80", "ToPort" : "80", "CidrIp" : "0.0.0.0/0"}, {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "22", "ToPort" : "22", "CidrIp" : { "Ref" : "SSHLocation"}} ] } } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { "Description" : "URL for newly created LAMP stack", "Value" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["http://", { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "WebServerInstance", "PublicDnsName" ]}]] } } } }

除了 Amazon EC2 实例和安全组之外,我们还创建了三个输入参数,这些参数可指定实例类型、用于 SSH 访问的 Amazon EC2 密钥对以及可用于以 SSH 方式连接实例的 IP 地址范围。映射部分可确保 AWS CloudFormation 使用适用于堆栈的区域和 Amazon EC2 实例类型的正确 AMI ID。最后,输出部分将输出 Web 服务器的公共 URL。

LAMP 安装

您将基于上一个基础 Amazon EC2 模板进行构建来自动安装 Apache、MySQL 和 PHP。为了安装应用程序,您将添加 UserData 属性和 Metadata 属性。但该模板在进入下一个部分之前将不会配置和启动应用程序。

在以下示例中,为了简洁,将删除所有用省略号 (...) 标记的部分。模板的新增部分以红色斜体文本显示。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Install_Only: ...", "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { ... }, "InstanceType" : { ... }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "Comment1" : "Configure the bootstrap helpers to install the Apache Web Server and PHP", "Comment2" : "Save website content to /var/www/html/index.php", "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "Install" : [ "Install" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : [ "", [ "<html>\n", " <head>\n", " <title>AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</title>\n", " <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1\">\n", " </head>\n", " <body>\n", " <h1>Welcome to the AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</h1>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Print out the current data and time\n", " print \"The Current Date and Time is: <br/>\";\n", " print date(\"g:i A l, F j Y.\");\n", " ?>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Setup a handle for CURL\n", " $curl_handle=curl_init();\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT,2);\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);\n", " // Get the hostname of the instance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-hostname');\n", " $hostname = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($hostname))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no hostname back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"Server = \" . $hostname . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " // Get the instance-id of the instance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-id');\n", " $instanceid = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($instanceid))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no instance id back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"EC2 instance-id = \" . $instanceid . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " $Database = \"", {"Ref" : "DBName"}, "\";\n", " $DBUser = \"", {"Ref" : "DBUsername"}, "\";\n", " $DBPassword = \"", {"Ref" : "DBPassword"}, "\";\n", " print \"Database = \" . $Database . \"<br />\";\n", " $dbconnection = mysql_connect($Database, $DBUser, $DBPassword)\n", " or die(\"Could not connect: \" . ysql_error());\n", " print (\"Connected to $Database successfully\");\n", " mysql_close($dbconnection);\n", " ?>\n", " <h2>PHP Information</h2>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " phpinfo();\n", " ?>\n", " </body>\n", "</html>\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets Install ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { ... } }

UserData 属性运行两条 shell 命令:安装 AWS CloudFormation 帮助程序脚本,然后运行 cfn-init 帮助程序脚本。由于帮助程序脚本会定期更新,因此可运行 yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap 命令来确保您将获得最新的帮助程序脚本。在运行 cfn-init 时,它从 AWS::CloudFormation::Init 资源中读取元数据,这将描述要由 cfn-init 执行的操作。例如,您可使用 cfn-init 和 AWS::CloudFormation::Init 安装软件包,将文件写入磁盘或启动某项服务。在我们的案例中,cfn-init 安装列出的软件包 (httpd、mysql 和 php) 并创建 /var/www/html/index.php 文件 (一个示例 PHP 应用程序)。

LAMP 配置

现在我们有一个可安装 Linux、Apache、MySQL 和 PHP 的模板,我们将需要扩展该模板以使其自动配置和运行 Apache、MySQL、和 PHP。在以下示例中,我们扩展了 Parameters 部分、AWS::CloudFormation::Init 资源和 UserData 属性来完成配置。与上一个模板一样,为了简洁,将删除所有用省略号 (...) 标记的部分。模板的新增部分以红色斜体文本显示。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName" : { ... }, "DBName": { "Default": "MyDatabase", "Description" : "MySQL database name", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "64", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBUsername": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Username for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "16", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Password for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBRootPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Root password for MySQL", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "InstanceType" : { ... } }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "Comment1" : "Configure the bootstrap helpers to install the Apache Web Server and PHP", "Comment2" : "Save website content to /var/www/html/index.php", "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "InstallAndRun" : [ "Install", "Configure" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { ... }, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "/tmp/setup.mysql" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "CREATE DATABASE ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ";\n", "GRANT ALL ON ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ".* TO '", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, "'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '", { "Ref" : "DBPassword" }, "';\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[main]\n", "stack=", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" }, "\n", "region=", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf" : { "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[cfn-auto-reloader-hook]\n", "triggers=post.update\n", "path=Resources.WebServerInstance.Metadata.AWS::CloudFormation::Init\n", "action=/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "runas=root\n" ]]} } }, }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "mysqld" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "cfn-hup" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true", "files" : ["/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf", "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf"]} } } }, "Configure" : { "commands" : { "01_set_mysql_root_password" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysqladmin -u root password '", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "'"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} }, "02_create_database" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysql -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' < /tmp/setup.mysql"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ",^M " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { ... } }

该示例添加多个参数来获取用于配置 MySQL 数据库的信息,如数据库名称、用户名、密码和根密码。这些参数还包含各种限制,可在 AWS CloudFormation 创建堆栈之前,捕获格式不正确的值。

AWS::CloudFormation::Init 资源中,我们添加了一个 MySQL 设置文件,该文件包含数据库名称、用户名和密码。该示例还添加了 services 属性来确保 httpd 和 mysqld 服务正常运行(将 ensureRunning 设置为 true)并确保这些服务在重新引导实例时将重新启动(将 enabled 设置为 true)。好的做法是,还包含 cfn-hup 帮助程序脚本,可利用该脚本通过更新堆栈模板来对正在运行的实例进行配置更新。例如,您可以更改示例 PHP 应用程序,然后运行堆栈更新来部署更改。

为了在安装完成后运行 MySQL 命令,示例添加了另一个配置集来运行这些命令。在您有一系列必须按特定顺序完成的任务时,配置集很有用。示例首先运行 Installation 配置集,然后运行 Configure 配置集。Configure 配置集指定数据库根密码,然后创建数据库。在命令部分中,按名称的字母顺序处理这些命令,以便示例在每个命令名称的前面添加一个数字来表示其所需的运行顺序。

CreationPolicy 属性

最后,您需要通过某种方式来指示 AWS CloudFormation 仅在所有服务(如 Apache 和 MySQL)运行后而不是在创建所有堆栈资源后完成堆栈创建。换句话说,如果您使用前一个部分中的模板来启动堆栈,则 AWS CloudFormation 会在成功创建所有资源后将堆栈的状态设置为 CREATE_COMPLETE。不过,如果一个或多个服务启动失败,AWS CloudFormation 仍会将堆栈状态设置为 CREATE_COMPLETE。要防止状态在成功启动所有服务之前更为 CREATE_COMPLETE,您可将 CreationPolicy 属性添加到实例。此属性将实例的状态置于 CREATE_IN_PROGRESS,直至 AWS CloudFormation 收到所需数量的成功信号或超出超时期限,以使您能够控制何时成功创建实例。

以下示例将创建策略添加到 Amazon EC2 实例来确保 cfn-init 在创建堆栈之前完成 LAMP 的安装和配置。在与创建策略结合使用时,该示例需要运行 cfn-signal 帮助程序脚本以在安装和配置所有应用程序时向 AWS CloudFormation 发送信号。

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: ...", "Parameters" : { ... }, "Mappings" : { ... }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { ... }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum update aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ",^M " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "# Signal the status from cfn-init\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-signal -e $? ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, "         --resource WebServerInstance ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} }, "CreationPolicy" : { "ResourceSignal" : { "Timeout" : "PT5M" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { ... } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { ... } } }

创建策略属性使用 ISO 8601 格式来定义 5 分钟的超时期限。因为您仅等待 1 个实例进行配置,所以您只需等待一个成功信号(默认计数)。

UserData 属性中,如果所有服务均已成功配置并启动,则模板将运行 cfn-signal 脚本来发送成功信号与退出代码。当您使用 cfn-signal 脚本时,必须添加堆栈 ID 或名称以及要发送信号的资源的逻辑 ID。如果配置失败或超出超时期限,则 cfn-signal 将发送导致资源创建失败的失败信号。

以下示例显示了最终的完整模板。您还可以在以下位置查看模板:

https://s3.amazonaws.com/cloudformation-templates-us-east-1/LAMP_Single_Instance.template

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{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Description" : "AWS CloudFormation Sample Template LAMP_Single_Instance: Create a LAMP stack using a single EC2 instance and a local MySQL database for storage. This template demonstrates using the AWS CloudFormation bootstrap scripts to install the packages and files necessary to deploy the Apache web server, PHP and MySQL at instance launch time. **WARNING** This template creates an Amazon EC2 instance. You will be billed for the AWS resources used if you create a stack from this template.", "Parameters" : { "KeyName": { "Description" : "Name of an existing EC2 KeyPair to enable SSH access to the instance", "Type": "AWS::EC2::KeyPair::KeyName", "ConstraintDescription" : "Can contain only ASCII characters." }, "DBName": { "Default": "MyDatabase", "Description" : "MySQL database name", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "64", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBUsername": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "User name for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "16", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Password for MySQL database access", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "DBRootPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "Root password for MySQL", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "Must contain only alphanumeric characters" }, "InstanceType" : { "Description" : "WebServer EC2 instance type", "Type" : "String", "Default" : "m1.small", "AllowedValues" : [ "t1.micro", "t2.micro", "t2.small", "t2.medium", "m1.small", "m1.medium", "m1.large", "m1.xlarge", "m2.xlarge", "m2.2xlarge", "m2.4xlarge", "m3.medium", "m3.large", "m3.xlarge", "m3.2xlarge", "c1.medium", "c1.xlarge", "c3.large", "c3.xlarge", "c3.2xlarge", "c3.4xlarge", "c3.8xlarge", "g2.2xlarge", "r3.large", "r3.xlarge", "r3.2xlarge", "r3.4xlarge", "r3.8xlarge", "i2.xlarge", "i2.2xlarge", "i2.4xlarge", "i2.8xlarge", "hi1.4xlarge", "hs1.8xlarge", "cr1.8xlarge", "cc2.8xlarge", "cg1.4xlarge"], "ConstraintDescription" : "Must be a valid EC2 instance type" }, "SSHLocation" : { "Description" : "The IP address range that can be used to SSH to the EC2 instances", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "9", "MaxLength": "18", "Default": "0.0.0.0/0", "AllowedPattern": "(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})\\.(\\d{1,3})/(\\d{1,2})", "ConstraintDescription": "Must be a valid IP CIDR range of the form x.x.x.x/x" } }, "Mappings" : { "AWSInstanceType2Arch" : { "t1.micro" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "t2.micro" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.small" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "t2.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m1.small" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.large" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "m3.medium" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "m3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c1.medium" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c1.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "PV64" }, "c3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "c3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "g2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVMG2" }, "r3.large" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "r3.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.2xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "i2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hi1.4xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "hs1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cr1.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" }, "cc2.8xlarge" : { "Arch" : "HVM64" } }, "AWSRegionArch2AMI" : { "us-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-50842d38", "HVM64" : "ami-08842d60", "HVMG2" : "ami-3a329952" }, "us-west-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-af86c69f", "HVM64" : "ami-8786c6b7", "HVMG2" : "ami-47296a77" }, "us-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-c7a8a182", "HVM64" : "ami-cfa8a18a", "HVMG2" : "ami-331b1376" }, "eu-west-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-aa8f28dd", "HVM64" : "ami-748e2903", "HVMG2" : "ami-00913777" }, "ap-southeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-20e1c572", "HVM64" : "ami-d6e1c584", "HVMG2" : "ami-fabe9aa8" }, "ap-northeast-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-21072820", "HVM64" : "ami-35072834", "HVMG2" : "ami-5dd1ff5c" }, "ap-southeast-2" : { "PV64" : "ami-8b4724b1", "HVM64" : "ami-fd4724c7", "HVMG2" : "ami-e98ae9d3" }, "sa-east-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-9d6cc680", "HVM64" : "ami-956cc688", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "cn-north-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a857c591", "HVM64" : "ami-ac57c595", "HVMG2" : "NOT_SUPPORTED" }, "eu-central-1" : { "PV64" : "ami-a03503bd", "HVM64" : "ami-b43503a9", "HVMG2" : "ami-b03503ad" } } }, "Resources" : { "WebServerInstance": { "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Metadata" : { "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : { "configSets" : { "InstallAndRun" : [ "Install", "Configure" ] }, "Install" : { "packages" : { "yum" : { "mysql" : [], "mysql-server" : [], "mysql-libs" : [], "httpd" : [], "php" : [], "php-mysql" : [] } }, "files" : { "/var/www/html/index.php" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : [ "", [ "<html>\n", " <head>\n", " <title>AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</title>\n", " <meta http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"text/html; charset=ISO-8859-1\">\n", " </head>\n", " <body>\n", " <h1>Welcome to the AWS CloudFormation PHP Sample</h1>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Print out the current data and time\n", " print \"The Current Date and Time is: <br/>\";\n", " print date(\"g:i A l, F j Y.\");\n", " ?>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " // Setup a handle for CURL\n", " $curl_handle=curl_init();\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_CONNECTTIMEOUT,2);\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1);\n", " // Get the hostname of the intance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/public-hostname');\n", " $hostname = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($hostname))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no hostname back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"Server = \" . $hostname . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " // Get the instance-id of the intance from the instance metadata\n", " curl_setopt($curl_handle,CURLOPT_URL,'http://169.254.169.254/latest/meta-data/instance-id');\n", " $instanceid = curl_exec($curl_handle);\n", " if (empty($instanceid))\n", " {\n", " print \"Sorry, for some reason, we got no instance id back <br />\";\n", " }\n", " else\n", " {\n", " print \"EC2 instance-id = \" . $instanceid . \"<br />\";\n", " }\n", " $Database = \"", {"Ref" : "DBName"}, "\";\n", " $DBUser = \"", {"Ref" : "DBUsername"}, "\";\n", " $DBPassword = \"", {"Ref" : "DBPassword"}, "\";\n", " print \"Database = \" . $Database . \"<br />\";\n", " $dbconnection = mysql_connect($Database, $DBUser, $DBPassword)\n", " or die(\"Could not connect: \" . ysql_error());\n", " print (\"Connected to $Database successfully\");\n", " mysql_close($dbconnection);\n", " ?>\n", " <h2>PHP Information</h2>\n", " <p/>\n", " <?php\n", " phpinfo();\n", " ?>\n", " </body>\n", "</html>\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000600", "owner" : "apache", "group" : "apache" }, "/tmp/setup.mysql" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "CREATE DATABASE ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ";\n", "GRANT ALL ON ", { "Ref" : "DBName" }, ".* TO '", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, "'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY '", { "Ref" : "DBPassword" }, "';\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf" : { "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[main]\n", "stack=", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" }, "\n", "region=", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}, "mode" : "000400", "owner" : "root", "group" : "root" }, "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf" : { "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "[cfn-auto-reloader-hook]\n", "triggers=post.update\n", "path=Resources.WebServerInstance.Metadata.AWS::CloudFormation::Init\n", "action=/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "runas=root\n" ]]} } }, "services" : { "sysvinit" : { "mysqld" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "httpd" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true" }, "cfn-hup" : { "enabled" : "true", "ensureRunning" : "true", "files" : ["/etc/cfn/cfn-hup.conf", "/etc/cfn/hooks.d/cfn-auto-reloader.conf"]} } } }, "Configure" : { "commands" : { "01_set_mysql_root_password" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysqladmin -u root password '", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "'"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} }, "02_create_database" : { "command" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["mysql -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' < /tmp/setup.mysql"]]}, "test" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["$(mysql ", { "Ref" : "DBUsername" }, " -u root --password='", { "Ref" : "DBRootPassword" }, "' >/dev/null 2>&1 </dev/null); (( $? != 0 ))"]]} } } } } }, "Properties": { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSRegionArch2AMI", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "AWSInstanceType2Arch", { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "Arch" ] } ] }, "InstanceType" : { "Ref" : "InstanceType" }, "SecurityGroups" : [ {"Ref" : "WebServerSecurityGroup"} ], "KeyName" : { "Ref" : "KeyName" }, "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [ "#!/bin/bash -xe\n", "yum install -y aws-cfn-bootstrap\n", "# Install the files and packages from the metadata\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-init -v ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, " --resource WebServerInstance ", " --configsets InstallAndRun ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n", "# Signal the status from cfn-init\n", "/opt/aws/bin/cfn-signal -e $? ", " --stack ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackName" }, "         --resource WebServerInstance ", " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n" ]]}} }, "CreationPolicy" : { "ResourceSignal" : { "Timeout" : "PT5M" } } }, "WebServerSecurityGroup" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup", "Properties" : { "GroupDescription" : "Enable HTTP access via port 80", "SecurityGroupIngress" : [ {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "80", "ToPort" : "80", "CidrIp" : "0.0.0.0/0"}, {"IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : "22", "ToPort" : "22", "CidrIp" : { "Ref" : "SSHLocation"}} ] } } }, "Outputs" : { "WebsiteURL" : { "Description" : "URL for newly created LAMP stack", "Value" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", ["http://", { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "WebServerInstance", "PublicDnsName" ]}]] } } } }