Amazon Relational Database Service
用户指南 (API 版本 2014-10-31)
AWS 文档中描述的 AWS 服务或功能可能因区域而异。要查看适用于中国区域的差异,请参阅 Amazon AWS 入门

连接到数据库实例(使用AWS SDK for Java)

可以使用AWS SDK for Java从命令行连接到 Amazon RDS 数据库实例,如下所述。

生成身份验证令牌

如果您使用AWS SDK for Java编写程序,则可使用 RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator 类获取已签名的身份验证令牌。使用此类需要提供 AWS 凭证。为此,创建 DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain 类的实例。DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain 使用它在默认凭证提供程序链中找到的第一个 AWS 访问密钥和私有密钥。有关 AWS 访问密钥的更多信息,请参阅管理 IAM 用户的访问密钥

在创建一个 RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator 实例后,您可调用 getAuthToken 方法以获取已签名的令牌。提供 AWS 区域、主机名、端口号和用户名。以下代码示例说明了如何执行该操作。

package com.amazonaws.codesamples; import com.amazonaws.auth.DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain; import com.amazonaws.services.rds.auth.GetIamAuthTokenRequest; import com.amazonaws.services.rds.auth.RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator; public class GenerateRDSAuthToken { public static void main(String[] args) { String region = "us-west-2"; String hostname = "rdsmysql.cdgmuqiadpid.us-west-2.rds.amazonaws.com"; String port = "3306"; String username = "jane_doe"; System.out.println(generateAuthToken(region, hostname, port, username)); } static String generateAuthToken(String region, String hostName, String port, String username) { RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator generator = RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator.builder() .credentials(new DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain()) .region(region) .build(); String authToken = generator.getAuthToken( GetIamAuthTokenRequest.builder() .hostname(hostName) .port(Integer.parseInt(port)) .userName(username) .build()); return authToken; } }

手动构造身份验证令牌

在 Java 中,生成身份验证令牌的最简单方式是使用 RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator。此类将为您创建一个身份验证令牌,然后使用 AWS 签名版本 4 为该令牌签名。有关更多信息,请参阅 AWS General Reference 中的签名版本 4 签名流程

不过,您也可以手动构造身份验证令牌并为之签名,如以下代码示例中所示。

package com.amazonaws.codesamples; import com.amazonaws.SdkClientException; import com.amazonaws.auth.DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain; import com.amazonaws.auth.SigningAlgorithm; import com.amazonaws.util.BinaryUtils; import org.apache.commons.lang3.StringUtils; import javax.crypto.Mac; import javax.crypto.spec.SecretKeySpec; import java.nio.charset.Charset; import java.security.MessageDigest; import java.text.SimpleDateFormat; import java.util.Date; import java.util.SortedMap; import java.util.TreeMap; import static com.amazonaws.auth.internal.SignerConstants.AWS4_TERMINATOR; import static com.amazonaws.util.StringUtils.UTF8; public class CreateRDSAuthTokenManually { public static String httpMethod = "GET"; public static String action = "connect"; public static String canonicalURIParameter = "/"; public static SortedMap<String, String> canonicalQueryParameters = new TreeMap(); public static String payload = StringUtils.EMPTY; public static String signedHeader = "host"; public static String algorithm = "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256"; public static String serviceName = "rds-db"; public static String requestWithoutSignature; public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { String region = "us-west-2"; String instanceName = "rdsmysql.cdgmuqiadpid.us-west-2.rds.amazonaws.com"; String port = "3306"; String username = "jane_doe"; Date now = new Date(); String date = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMdd").format(now); String dateTimeStamp = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMdd'T'HHmmssZ").format(now); DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain creds = new DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain(); String awsAccessKey = creds.getCredentials().getAWSAccessKeyId(); String awsSecretKey = creds.getCredentials().getAWSSecretKey(); String expiryMinutes = "900"; System.out.println("Step 1: Create a canonical request:"); String canonicalString = createCanonicalString(username, awsAccessKey, date, dateTimeStamp, region, expiryMinutes, instanceName, port); System.out.println(canonicalString); System.out.println(); System.out.println("Step 2: Create a string to sign:"); String stringToSign = createStringToSign(dateTimeStamp, canonicalString, awsAccessKey, date, region); System.out.println(stringToSign); System.out.println(); System.out.println("Step 3: Calculate the signature:"); String signature = BinaryUtils.toHex(calculateSignature(stringToSign, newSigningKey(awsSecretKey, date, region, serviceName))); System.out.println(signature); System.out.println(); System.out.println("Step 4: Add the signing info to the request"); System.out.println(appendSignature(signature)); System.out.println(); } //Step 1: Create a canonical request date should be in format YYYYMMDD and dateTime should be in format YYYYMMDDTHHMMSSZ public static String createCanonicalString(String user, String accessKey, String date, String dateTime, String region, String expiryPeriod, String hostName, String port) throws Exception { canonicalQueryParameters.put("Action", action); canonicalQueryParameters.put("DBUser", user); canonicalQueryParameters.put("X-Amz-Algorithm", "AWS4-HMAC-SHA256"); canonicalQueryParameters.put("X-Amz-Credential", accessKey + "%2F" + date + "%2F" + region + "%2F" + serviceName + "%2Faws4_request"); canonicalQueryParameters.put("X-Amz-Date", dateTime); canonicalQueryParameters.put("X-Amz-Expires", expiryPeriod); canonicalQueryParameters.put("X-Amz-SignedHeaders", signedHeader); String canonicalQueryString = ""; while(!canonicalQueryParameters.isEmpty()) { String currentQueryParameter = canonicalQueryParameters.firstKey(); String currentQueryParameterValue = canonicalQueryParameters.remove(currentQueryParameter); canonicalQueryString = canonicalQueryString + currentQueryParameter + "=" + currentQueryParameterValue; if (!currentQueryParameter.equals("X-Amz-SignedHeaders")) { canonicalQueryString += "&"; } } String canonicalHeaders = "host:" + hostName + ":" + port + '\n'; requestWithoutSignature = hostName + ":" + port + "/?" + canonicalQueryString; String hashedPayload = BinaryUtils.toHex(hash(payload)); return httpMethod + '\n' + canonicalURIParameter + '\n' + canonicalQueryString + '\n' + canonicalHeaders + '\n' + signedHeader + '\n' + hashedPayload; } //Step 2: Create a string to sign using sig v4 public static String createStringToSign(String dateTime, String canonicalRequest, String accessKey, String date, String region) throws Exception { String credentialScope = date + "/" + region + "/" + serviceName + "/aws4_request"; return algorithm + '\n' + dateTime + '\n' + credentialScope + '\n' + BinaryUtils.toHex(hash(canonicalRequest)); } //Step 3: Calculate signature /** * Step 3 of the AWS Signature version 4 calculation. It involves deriving * the signing key and computing the signature. Refer to * http://docs.aws.amazon * .com/general/latest/gr/sigv4-calculate-signature.html */ public static byte[] calculateSignature(String stringToSign, byte[] signingKey) { return sign(stringToSign.getBytes(Charset.forName("UTF-8")), signingKey, SigningAlgorithm.HmacSHA256); } public static byte[] sign(byte[] data, byte[] key, SigningAlgorithm algorithm) throws SdkClientException { try { Mac mac = algorithm.getMac(); mac.init(new SecretKeySpec(key, algorithm.toString())); return mac.doFinal(data); } catch (Exception e) { throw new SdkClientException( "Unable to calculate a request signature: " + e.getMessage(), e); } } public static byte[] newSigningKey(String secretKey, String dateStamp, String regionName, String serviceName) { byte[] kSecret = ("AWS4" + secretKey).getBytes(Charset.forName("UTF-8")); byte[] kDate = sign(dateStamp, kSecret, SigningAlgorithm.HmacSHA256); byte[] kRegion = sign(regionName, kDate, SigningAlgorithm.HmacSHA256); byte[] kService = sign(serviceName, kRegion, SigningAlgorithm.HmacSHA256); return sign(AWS4_TERMINATOR, kService, SigningAlgorithm.HmacSHA256); } public static byte[] sign(String stringData, byte[] key, SigningAlgorithm algorithm) throws SdkClientException { try { byte[] data = stringData.getBytes(UTF8); return sign(data, key, algorithm); } catch (Exception e) { throw new SdkClientException( "Unable to calculate a request signature: " + e.getMessage(), e); } } //Step 4: append the signature public static String appendSignature(String signature) { return requestWithoutSignature + "&X-Amz-Signature=" + signature; } public static byte[] hash(String s) throws Exception { try { MessageDigest md = MessageDigest.getInstance("SHA-256"); md.update(s.getBytes(UTF8)); return md.digest(); } catch (Exception e) { throw new SdkClientException( "Unable to compute hash while signing request: " + e.getMessage(), e); } } }

连接到数据库实例

以下代码示例说明了如何生成一个身份验证令牌,然后使用该令牌连接到运行 MySQL 的 Amazon RDS 实例。

要运行此代码示例,您需要AWS SDK for Java (https://aws.amazon.com/sdk-for-java)。此外,您需要:

  • MySQL Connector/J。已使用 mysql-connector-java-5.1.33-bin.jar 测试此代码示例。

  • 特定于 AWS 区域的 Amazon RDS 的中间证书。 (有关更多信息,请参阅 使用 SSL 加密与数据库实例的连接。) 在运行时,类加载程序会在与此 Java 代码示例相同的目录中查找证书以便可以找到它。

  • 根据需要修改以下变量的值:

    • RDS_INSTANCE_HOSTNAME - 要访问的数据库实例的主机名。

    • RDS_INSTANCE_PORT - 用于连接到数据库实例的端口号。

    • REGION_NAME - 数据库实例在其中运行的 AWS 区域。

    • DB_USER - 要访问的数据库账户。

    • SSL_CERTIFICATE – 特定于 AWS 区域的 Amazon RDS 的 SSL 证书。要为 AWS 区域下载证书,请参阅中间证书。将 SSL 证书放置在此 Java 程序文件所在的同一目录中,以便类加载程序可在运行时找到此证书。

此代码示例将从默认凭证提供程序链获取 AWS 凭证。

package com.amazonaws.samples; import com.amazonaws.services.rds.auth.RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator; import com.amazonaws.services.rds.auth.GetIamAuthTokenRequest; import com.amazonaws.auth.BasicAWSCredentials; import com.amazonaws.auth.DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain; import com.amazonaws.auth.AWSStaticCredentialsProvider; import java.io.File; import java.io.FileOutputStream; import java.io.InputStream; import java.security.KeyStore; import java.security.cert.CertificateFactory; import java.security.cert.X509Certificate; import java.sql.Connection; import java.sql.DriverManager; import java.sql.ResultSet; import java.sql.Statement; import java.util.Properties; import java.net.URL; public class IAMDatabaseAuthenticationTester { //AWS Credentials of the IAM user with policy enabling IAM Database Authenticated access to the db by the db user. private static final DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain creds = new DefaultAWSCredentialsProviderChain(); private static final String AWS_ACCESS_KEY = creds.getCredentials().getAWSAccessKeyId(); private static final String AWS_SECRET_KEY = creds.getCredentials().getAWSSecretKey(); //Configuration parameters for the generation of the IAM Database Authentication token private static final String RDS_INSTANCE_HOSTNAME = "rdsmysql.cdgmuqiadpid.us-west-2.rds.amazonaws.com"; private static final int RDS_INSTANCE_PORT = 3306; private static final String REGION_NAME = "us-west-2"; private static final String DB_USER = "jane_doe"; private static final String JDBC_URL = "jdbc:mysql://" + RDS_INSTANCE_HOSTNAME + ":" + RDS_INSTANCE_PORT; private static final String SSL_CERTIFICATE = "rds-ca-2015-us-west-2.pem"; private static final String KEY_STORE_TYPE = "JKS"; private static final String KEY_STORE_PROVIDER = "SUN"; private static final String KEY_STORE_FILE_PREFIX = "sys-connect-via-ssl-test-cacerts"; private static final String KEY_STORE_FILE_SUFFIX = ".jks"; private static final String DEFAULT_KEY_STORE_PASSWORD = "changeit"; public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception { //get the connection Connection connection = getDBConnectionUsingIam(); //verify the connection is successful Statement stmt= connection.createStatement(); ResultSet rs=stmt.executeQuery("SELECT 'Success!' FROM DUAL;"); while (rs.next()) { String id = rs.getString(1); System.out.println(id); //Should print "Success!" } //close the connection stmt.close(); connection.close(); } /** * This method returns a connection to the db instance authenticated using IAM Database Authentication * @return * @throws Exception */ private static Connection getDBConnectionUsingIam() throws Exception { setSslProperties(); return DriverManager.getConnection(JDBC_URL, setMySqlConnectionProperties()); } /** * This method sets the mysql connection properties which includes the IAM Database Authentication token * as the password. It also specifies that SSL verification is required. * @return */ private static Properties setMySqlConnectionProperties() { Properties mysqlConnectionProperties = new Properties(); mysqlConnectionProperties.setProperty("verifyServerCertificate","true"); mysqlConnectionProperties.setProperty("useSSL", "true"); mysqlConnectionProperties.setProperty("user",DB_USER); mysqlConnectionProperties.setProperty("password",generateAuthToken()); return mysqlConnectionProperties; } /** * This method generates the IAM Auth Token. * An example IAM Auth Token would look like follows: * btusi123.cmz7kenwo2ye.rds.cn-north-1.amazonaws.com.cn:3306/?Action=connect&DBUser=iamtestuser&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20171003T010726Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=899&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAPFXHGVDI5RNFO4AQ%2F20171003%2Fcn-north-1%2Frds-db%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=f9f45ef96c1f770cdad11a53e33ffa4c3730bc03fdee820cfdf1322eed15483b * @return */ private static String generateAuthToken() { BasicAWSCredentials awsCredentials = new BasicAWSCredentials(AWS_ACCESS_KEY, AWS_SECRET_KEY); RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator generator = RdsIamAuthTokenGenerator.builder() .credentials(new AWSStaticCredentialsProvider(awsCredentials)).region(REGION_NAME).build(); return generator.getAuthToken(GetIamAuthTokenRequest.builder() .hostname(RDS_INSTANCE_HOSTNAME).port(RDS_INSTANCE_PORT).userName(DB_USER).build()); } /** * This method sets the SSL properties which specify the key store file, its type and password: * @throws Exception */ private static void setSslProperties() throws Exception { System.setProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStore", createKeyStoreFile()); System.setProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStoreType", KEY_STORE_TYPE); System.setProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword", DEFAULT_KEY_STORE_PASSWORD); } /** * This method returns the path of the Key Store File needed for the SSL verification during the IAM Database Authentication to * the db instance. * @return * @throws Exception */ private static String createKeyStoreFile() throws Exception { return createKeyStoreFile(createCertificate()).getPath(); } /** * This method generates the SSL certificate * @return * @throws Exception */ private static X509Certificate createCertificate() throws Exception { CertificateFactory certFactory = CertificateFactory.getInstance("X.509"); URL url = new File(SSL_CERTIFICATE).toURI().toURL(); if (url == null) { throw new Exception(); } try (InputStream certInputStream = url.openStream()) { return (X509Certificate) certFactory.generateCertificate(certInputStream); } } /** * This method creates the Key Store File * @param rootX509Certificate - the SSL certificate to be stored in the KeyStore * @return * @throws Exception */ private static File createKeyStoreFile(X509Certificate rootX509Certificate) throws Exception { File keyStoreFile = File.createTempFile(KEY_STORE_FILE_PREFIX, KEY_STORE_FILE_SUFFIX); try (FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(keyStoreFile.getPath())) { KeyStore ks = KeyStore.getInstance(KEY_STORE_TYPE, KEY_STORE_PROVIDER); ks.load(null); ks.setCertificateEntry("rootCaCertificate", rootX509Certificate); ks.store(fos, DEFAULT_KEY_STORE_PASSWORD.toCharArray()); } return keyStoreFile; } /** * This method clears the SSL properties. * @throws Exception */ private static void setSslProperties() throws Exception { System.clearProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStore"); System.clearProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStoreType"); System.clearProperty("javax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword"); } }