Sample templates - Amazon CloudFormation
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Sample templates

Conditionally create resources for a production, development, or test stack

In some cases, you might want to create stacks that are similar but with minor tweaks. For example, you might have a template that you use for production applications. You want to create the same production stack so that you can use it for development or testing. However, for development and testing, you might not require all the extra capacity that's included in a production-level stack. Instead, you can use an environment type input parameter to conditionally create stack resources that are specific to production, development, or testing, as shown in the following sample:

Example JSON
{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Mappings" : { "RegionMap" : { "us-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-0ff8a91507f77f867"}, "us-west-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-0bdb828fd58c52235"}, "us-west-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-a0cfeed8"}, "eu-west-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-047bb4163c506cd98"}, "sa-east-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-07b14488da8ea02a0"}, "ap-southeast-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-08569b978cc4dfa10"}, "ap-southeast-2" : { "AMI" : "ami-09b42976632b27e9b"}, "ap-northeast-1" : { "AMI" : "ami-06cd52961ce9f0d85"} } }, "Parameters" : { "EnvType" : { "Description" : "Environment type.", "Default" : "test", "Type" : "String", "AllowedValues" : ["prod", "dev", "test"], "ConstraintDescription" : "must specify prod, dev, or test." } }, "Conditions" : { "CreateProdResources" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : "EnvType"}, "prod"]}, "CreateDevResources" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : "EnvType"}, "dev"]} }, "Resources" : { "EC2Instance" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties" : { "ImageId" : { "Fn::FindInMap" : [ "RegionMap", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "AMI" ]}, "InstanceType" : { "Fn::If" : [ "CreateProdResources", "c1.xlarge", {"Fn::If" : [ "CreateDevResources", "m1.large", "m1.small" ]} ]} } }, "MountPoint" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::VolumeAttachment", "Condition" : "CreateProdResources", "Properties" : { "InstanceId" : { "Ref" : "EC2Instance" }, "VolumeId" : { "Ref" : "NewVolume" }, "Device" : "/dev/sdh" } }, "NewVolume" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Volume", "Condition" : "CreateProdResources", "Properties" : { "Size" : "100", "AvailabilityZone" : { "Fn::GetAtt" : [ "EC2Instance", "AvailabilityZone" ]} } } } }
Example YAML
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: "2010-09-09" Mappings: RegionMap: us-east-1: AMI: "ami-0ff8a91507f77f867" us-west-1: AMI: "ami-0bdb828fd58c52235" us-west-2: AMI: "ami-a0cfeed8" eu-west-1: AMI: "ami-047bb4163c506cd98" sa-east-1: AMI: "ami-07b14488da8ea02a0" ap-southeast-1: AMI: "ami-08569b978cc4dfa10" ap-southeast-2: AMI: "ami-09b42976632b27e9b" ap-northeast-1: AMI: "ami-06cd52961ce9f0d85" Parameters: EnvType: Description: Environment type. Default: test Type: String AllowedValues: [prod, dev, test] ConstraintDescription: must specify prod, dev, or test. Conditions: CreateProdResources: !Equals [!Ref EnvType, prod] CreateDevResources: !Equals [!Ref EnvType, "dev"] Resources: EC2Instance: Type: "AWS::EC2::Instance" Properties: ImageId: !FindInMap [RegionMap, !Ref "AWS::Region", AMI] InstanceType: !If [CreateProdResources, c1.xlarge, !If [CreateDevResources, m1.large, m1.small]] MountPoint: Type: "AWS::EC2::VolumeAttachment" Condition: CreateProdResources Properties: InstanceId: !Ref EC2Instance VolumeId: !Ref NewVolume Device: /dev/sdh NewVolume: Type: "AWS::EC2::Volume" Condition: CreateProdResources Properties: Size: 100 AvailabilityZone: !GetAtt EC2Instance.AvailabilityZone

You can specify prod, dev, or test for the EnvType parameter. For each environment type, the template specifies a different instance type. The instance types can range from a large, compute-optimized instance type to a small general purpose instance type. In order to conditionally specify the instance type, the template defines two conditions in the Conditions section of the template: CreateProdResources, which evaluates to true if the EnvType parameter value is equal to prod and CreateDevResources, which evaluates to true if the parameter value is equal to dev.

In the InstanceType property, the template nests two Fn::If intrinsic functions to determine which instance type to use. If the CreateProdResources condition is true, the instance type is c1.xlarge. If the condition is false, the CreateDevResources condition is evaluated. If the CreateDevResources condition is true, the instance type is m1.large or else the instance type is m1.small.

In addition to the instance type, the production environment creates and attaches an Amazon EC2 volume to the instance. The MountPoint and NewVolume resources are associated with the CreateProdResources condition so that the resources are created only if the condition evaluates to true.

Conditionally assign a resource property

In this example, you can create an Amazon RDS DB instance from a snapshot. If you specify the DBSnapshotName parameter, CloudFormation uses the parameter value as the snapshot name when creating the DB instance. If you keep the default value (empty string), CloudFormation removes the DBSnapshotIdentifier property and creates a DB instance from scratch.

The example defines the DBUser and DBPassword parameters with their NoEcho property set to true. If you set the NoEcho attribute to true, CloudFormation returns the parameter value masked as asterisks (*****) for any calls that describe the stack or stack events, except for information stored in the locations specified below.


Using the NoEcho attribute does not mask any information stored in the following:

  • The Metadata template section. CloudFormation does not transform, modify, or redact any information you include in the Metadata section. For more information, see Metadata.

  • The Outputs template section. For more information, see Outputs.

  • The Metadata attribute of a resource definition. For more information, Metadata attribute.

We strongly recommend you do not use these mechanisms to include sensitive information, such as passwords or secrets.


Rather than embedding sensitive information directly in your CloudFormation templates, we recommend you use dynamic parameters in the stack template to reference sensitive information that is stored and managed outside of CloudFormation, such as in the Amazon Systems Manager Parameter Store or Amazon Secrets Manager.

For more information, see the Do not embed credentials in your templates best practice.

Example JSON
{ "AWSTemplateFormatVersion" : "2010-09-09", "Parameters": { "DBUser": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "The database admin account username", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "16", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters." }, "DBPassword": { "NoEcho": "true", "Description" : "The database admin account password", "Type": "String", "MinLength": "1", "MaxLength": "41", "AllowedPattern" : "[a-zA-Z0-9]*", "ConstraintDescription" : "must contain only alphanumeric characters." }, "DBSnapshotName": { "Description": "The name of a DB snapshot (optional)", "Default": "", "Type": "String" } }, "Conditions": { "UseDBSnapshot": {"Fn::Not": [{"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : "DBSnapshotName"}, ""]}]} }, "Resources" : { "MyDB" : { "Type" : "AWS::RDS::DBInstance", "Properties" : { "AllocatedStorage" : "5", "DBInstanceClass" : "db.t2.small", "Engine" : "MySQL", "EngineVersion" : "5.5", "MasterUsername" : { "Ref" : "DBUser" }, "MasterUserPassword" : { "Ref" : "DBPassword" }, "DBParameterGroupName" : { "Ref" : "MyRDSParamGroup" }, "DBSnapshotIdentifier" : { "Fn::If" : [ "UseDBSnapshot", {"Ref" : "DBSnapshotName"}, {"Ref" : "AWS::NoValue"} ] } } }, "MyRDSParamGroup" : { "Type": "AWS::RDS::DBParameterGroup", "Properties" : { "Family" : "MySQL5.5", "Description" : "CloudFormation Sample Database Parameter Group", "Parameters" : { "autocommit" : "1" , "general_log" : "1", "old_passwords" : "0" } } } } }
Example YAML
AWSTemplateFormatVersion: "2010-09-09" Parameters: DBUser: NoEcho: true Description: The database admin account username Type: String MinLength: 1 MaxLength: 16 AllowedPattern: "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]*" ConstraintDescription: must begin with a letter and contain only alphanumeric characters. DBPassword: NoEcho: true Description: The database admin account password Type: String MinLength: 1 MaxLength: 41 AllowedPattern: "[a-zA-Z0-9]*" ConstraintDescription: must contain only alphanumeric characters. DBSnapshotName: Description: The name of a DB snapshot (optional) Default: "" Type: String Conditions: UseDBSnapshot: !Not [!Equals [!Ref DBSnapshotName, ""]] Resources: MyDB: Type: "AWS::RDS::DBInstance" Properties: AllocatedStorage: 5 DBInstanceClass: db.t2.small Engine: MySQL EngineVersion: 5.5 MasterUsername: !Ref DBUser MasterUserPassword: !Ref DBPassword DBParameterGroupName: !Ref MyRDSParamGroup DBSnapshotIdentifier: !If [UseDBSnapshot, !Ref DBSnapshotName, !Ref "AWS::NoValue"] MyRDSParamGroup: Type: "AWS::RDS::DBParameterGroup" Properties: Family: MySQL5.5 Description: CloudFormation Sample Database Parameter Group Parameters: autocommit: 1 general_log: 1 old_passwords: 0

The UseDBSnapshot condition evaluates to true only if the DBSnapshotName isn't an empty string. If the UseDBSnapshot condition evaluates to true, CloudFormation uses the DBSnapshotName parameter value for the DBSnapshotIdentifier property. If the condition evaluates to false, CloudFormation removes the DBSnapshotIdentifier property. The AWS::NoValue pseudo parameter removes the corresponding resource property when it's used as a return value.

Conditionally use an existing resource

In this example, you can use an Amazon EC2 security group that has already been created or you can create a new security group, which is specified in the template. For the ExistingSecurityGroup parameter, you can specify the default security group name or NONE. If you specify default, CloudFormation uses a security group that has already been created and is named default. If you specify NONE, CloudFormation creates the security group that's defined in the template.

Example JSON
{ "Parameters" : { "ExistingSecurityGroup" : { "Description" : "An existing security group ID (optional).", "Default" : "NONE", "Type" : "String", "AllowedValues" : ["default", "NONE"] } }, "Conditions" : { "CreateNewSecurityGroup" : {"Fn::Equals" : [{"Ref" : "ExistingSecurityGroup"}, "NONE"] } }, "Resources" : { "MyInstance" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::Instance", "Properties" : { "ImageId" : "ami-0ff8a91507f77f867", "SecurityGroups" : [{ "Fn::If" : [ "CreateNewSecurityGroup", {"Ref" : "NewSecurityGroup"}, {"Ref" : "ExistingSecurityGroup"} ] }] } }, "NewSecurityGroup" : { "Type" : "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup", "Condition" : "CreateNewSecurityGroup", "Properties" : { "GroupDescription" : "Enable HTTP access via port 80", "SecurityGroupIngress" : [ { "IpProtocol" : "tcp", "FromPort" : 80, "ToPort" : 80, "CidrIp" : "" } ] } } }, "Outputs" : { "SecurityGroupId" : { "Description" : "Group ID of the security group used.", "Value" : { "Fn::If" : [ "CreateNewSecurityGroup", {"Ref" : "NewSecurityGroup"}, {"Ref" : "ExistingSecurityGroup"} ] } } } }
Example YAML
Parameters: ExistingSecurityGroup: Description: An existing security group ID (optional). Default: NONE Type: String AllowedValues: - default - NONE Conditions: CreateNewSecurityGroup: !Equals [!Ref ExistingSecurityGroup, NONE] Resources: MyInstance: Type: "AWS::EC2::Instance" Properties: ImageId: "ami-0ff8a91507f77f867" SecurityGroups: !If [CreateNewSecurityGroup, !Ref NewSecurityGroup, !Ref ExistingSecurityGroup] NewSecurityGroup: Type: "AWS::EC2::SecurityGroup" Condition: CreateNewSecurityGroup Properties: GroupDescription: Enable HTTP access via port 80 SecurityGroupIngress: - IpProtocol: tcp FromPort: 80 ToPort: 80 CidrIp: Outputs: SecurityGroupId: Description: Group ID of the security group used. Value: !If [CreateNewSecurityGroup, !Ref NewSecurityGroup, !Ref ExistingSecurityGroup]

To determine whether to create the NewSecurityGroup resource, the resource is associated with the CreateNewSecurityGroup condition. The resource is created only when the condition is true (when the ExistingSecurityGroup parameter is equal to NONE).

In the SecurityGroups property, the template uses the Fn::If intrinsic function to determine which security group to use. If the CreateNewSecurityGroup condition evaluates to true, the security group property references the NewSecurityGroup resource. If the CreateNewSecurityGroup condition evaluates to false, the security group property references the ExistingSecurityGroup parameter (the default security group).

Lastly, the template conditionally outputs the security group ID. If the CreateNewSecurityGroup condition evaluates to true, CloudFormation outputs the security group ID of the NewSecurityGroup resource. If the condition is false, CloudFormation outputs the security group ID of the ExistingSecurityGroup resource.