Amazon EBS and NVMe on Windows instances - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
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Amazon EBS and NVMe on Windows instances

EBS volumes are exposed as NVMe block devices on instances built on the Nitro System. When you attach a volume to your instance, you include a device name for the volume. This device name is used by Amazon EC2. The block device driver for the instance assigns the actual volume name when mounting the volume, and the name assigned can be different from the name that Amazon EC2 uses.

The EBS performance guarantees stated in Amazon EBS Product Details are valid regardless of the block-device interface.

For information about EBS volumes and NVME on Linux instances, see the User Guide for Linux Instances.

Install or upgrade the NVMe driver

The Amazon Windows AMIs for Windows Server 2008 R2 and later include the Amazon NVMe driver. If you are not using the latest Amazon Windows AMIs provided by Amazon, see Install or upgrade Amazon NVMe drivers using PowerShell.

Identify the EBS device

EBS uses single-root I/O virtualization (SR-IOV) to provide volume attachments on Nitro-based instances using the NVMe specification. These devices rely on standard NVMe drivers on the operating system. These drivers typically discover attached devices by scanning the PCI bus during instance boot, and create device nodes based on the order in which the devices respond, not on how the devices are specified in the block device mapping. Additionally, the device name assigned by the block device driver can be different from the name specified in the block device mapping.

Windows Server 2008 R2 and later

You can also run the ebsnvme-id command to map the NVMe device disk number to an EBS volume ID and device name. By default, all EBS NVMe devices are enumerated. You can pass a disk number to enumerate information for a specific device. Ebsnvme-id is included in the latest Amazon provided Windows Server AMIs located in C:\PROGRAMDATA\AMAZON\Tools.

PS C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop> ebsnvme-id.exe Disk Number: 0 Volume ID: vol-0d6d7ee9f6e471a7f Device Name: sda1 Disk Number: 1 Volume ID: vol-03a26248ff39b57cf Device Name: xvdd Disk Number: 2 Volume ID: vol-038bd1c629aa125e6 Device Name: xvde Disk Number: 3 Volume ID: vol-034f9d29ec0b64c89 Device Name: xvdb Disk Number: 4 Volume ID: vol-03e2dbe464b66f0a1 Device Name: xvdc PS C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop> ebsnvme-id.exe 4 Disk Number: 4 Volume ID: vol-03e2dbe464b66f0a1 Device Name: xvdc

Work with NVMe EBS volumes

The latest Amazon Windows AMIs contain the Amazon NVMe driver that is required by instance types that expose EBS volumes as NVMe block devices. However, if you resize your root volume on a Windows system, you must rescan the volume in order for this change to be reflected in the instance. If you launched your instance from a different AMI, it might not contain the required Amazon NVMe driver. If your instance does not have the latest Amazon NVMe driver, you must install it. For more information, see Amazon NVMe drivers for Windows instances.

I/O operation timeout

Most operating systems specify a timeout for I/O operations submitted to NVMe devices. On Windows systems, the default timeout is 60 seconds and the maximum is 255 seconds. You can modify the TimeoutValue disk class registry setting using the procedure described in Registry Entries for SCSI Miniport Drivers.

Abort command

The Abort command is an NVMe Admin command that is issued to abort a specific command that was previously submitted to the controller. This command is typically issued by the device driver to storage devices that have exceeded the I/O operation timeout threshold. Amazon EC2 instance types that support the Abort command by default will abort a specific command that was previously submitted to the controller of the attached Amazon EBS device to which an Abort command is issued.

The following instance types support the Abort command for all attached Amazon EBS volumes by default: R5b, R6i, M6i, M6a, C6gn, C6i, X2gd, X2iezn, Im4gn, Is4gen.

Other instance types take no action when Abort commands are issued to attached Amazon EBS volumes.

Amazon EBS devices with NVMe device version 1.4 or higher support the Abort command.

For more information, see section 5.1 Abort command of the NVM Express Base Specification.