Storage optimized instances - Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud
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Storage optimized instances

Storage optimized instances are designed for workloads that require high, sequential read and write access to very large data sets on local storage. They are optimized to deliver tens of thousands of low-latency, random I/O operations per second (IOPS) to applications. For more information, including the technology used, see the Amazon EC2 Instance Type Details page.

D2 instances

These instances are well suited for the following:

  • Massive parallel processing (MPP) data warehouse

  • MapReduce and Hadoop distributed computing

  • Log or data processing applications

D3 and D3en instances

These instances offer scale out of instance storage and are well suited for the following:

  • Distributed file systems for Hadoop workloads

  • File storage workloads such as GPFC and BeeFS

  • Large data lakes for HPC workloads

H1 instances

These instances are well suited for the following:

  • Data-intensive workloads such as MapReduce and distributed file systems

  • Applications requiring sequential access to large amounts of data on direct-attached instance storage

  • Applications that require high-throughput access to large quantities of data

I3 and I3en instances

These instances are well suited for the following:

  • High frequency online transaction processing (OLTP) systems

  • Relational databases

  • NoSQL databases

  • Cache for in-memory databases (for example, Redis)

  • Data warehousing applications

  • Distributed file systems

Bare metal instances provide your applications with direct access to physical resources of the host server, such as processors and memory.

I4i instances

These instances are well suited for I/O intensive workloads that require small to medium sized data sets on local storage, such as transactional databases and NoSQL databases.

Hardware specifications

The following is a summary of the hardware specifications for storage optimized instances. A virtual central processing unit (vCPU) represents a portion of the physical CPU assigned to a virtual machine (VM). For x86 instances, there are two vCPUs per core. For Graviton instances, there is one vCPU per core.

Instance type Default vCPUs Memory (GiB)
d2.xlarge 4 30.50
d2.2xlarge 8 61.00
d2.4xlarge 16 122.00
d2.8xlarge 36 244.00
d3.xlarge 4 32.00
d3.2xlarge 8 64.00
d3.4xlarge 16 128.00
d3.8xlarge 32 256.00
d3en.xlarge 4 16.00
d3en.2xlarge 8 32.00
d3en.4xlarge 16 64.00
d3en.6xlarge 24 96.00
d3en.8xlarge 32 128.00
d3en.12xlarge 48 192.00
h1.2xlarge 8 32.00
h1.4xlarge 16 64.00
h1.8xlarge 32 128.00
h1.16xlarge 64 256.00
hs1.8xlarge 16 117.00
i2.xlarge 4 30.50
i2.2xlarge 8 61.00
i2.4xlarge 16 122.00
i2.8xlarge 32 244.00
i3.large 2 15.25
i3.xlarge 4 30.50
i3.2xlarge 8 61.00
i3.4xlarge 16 122.00
i3.8xlarge 32 244.00
i3.16xlarge 64 488.00
i3.metal 72 512.00
i3en.large 2 16.00
i3en.xlarge 4 32.00
i3en.2xlarge 8 64.00
i3en.3xlarge 12 96.00
i3en.6xlarge 24 192.00
i3en.12xlarge 48 384.00
i3en.24xlarge 96 768.00
i3en.metal 96 768.00
i4i.large 2 16.00
i4i.xlarge 4 32.00
i4i.2xlarge 8 64.00
i4i.4xlarge 16 128.00
i4i.8xlarge 32 256.00
i4i.16xlarge 64 512.00
i4i.32xlarge 128 1024.00
i4i.metal 128 1024.00

The storage optimized instances use the following processors.

Intel processors
  • Intel Xeon Scalable processors (Haswell E5-2676 v3): D2

  • Intel Xeon Scalable processors (Broadwell E5-2686 v4): H1, I3

  • Intel Xeon Scalable processors (Skylake 8175M or Cascade Lake 8259CL): I3en

  • 2nd generation Intel Xeon Scalable processors (Cascade Lake 8259CL): D3, D3en

  • 3rd generation Intel Xeon Scalable processors (Ice Lake 8375C): I4i

For more information, see Amazon EC2 Instance Types.

Instance performance

For instances with NVMe instance store volumes, be sure to use the Amazon NVMe driver. For more information, see Amazon NVMe drivers for Windows instances.

EBS-optimized instances enable you to get consistently high performance for your EBS volumes by eliminating contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other network traffic from your instance. Some storage optimized instances are EBS-optimized by default at no additional cost. For more information, see Amazon EBS–optimized instances.

Network performance

You can enable enhanced networking on supported instance types to provide lower latencies, lower network jitter, and higher packet-per-second (PPS) performance. Most applications do not consistently need a high level of network performance, but can benefit from access to increased bandwidth when they send or receive data. For more information, see Enhanced networking on Windows.

The following is a summary of network performance for storage optimized instances that support enhanced networking.


Instance types indicated with a have a baseline bandwidth and can use a network I/O credit mechanism to burst beyond their baseline bandwidth on a best effort basis. For more information, see instance network bandwidth.

Instance type Network performance Enhanced networking features
d2.xlarge Moderate Not supported
d2.2xlarge High Not supported
d2.4xlarge High Not supported
d2.8xlarge 10 Gigabit Not supported
d3.xlarge Up to 15 Gigabit ENA
d3.2xlarge Up to 15 Gigabit ENA
d3.4xlarge Up to 15 Gigabit ENA
d3.8xlarge 25 Gigabit ENA
d3en.xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
d3en.2xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
d3en.4xlarge 25 Gigabit ENA
d3en.6xlarge 40 Gigabit ENA
d3en.8xlarge 50 Gigabit ENA
d3en.12xlarge 75 Gigabit ENA
h1.2xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
h1.4xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
h1.8xlarge 10 Gigabit ENA
h1.16xlarge 25 Gigabit ENA
i2.xlarge Moderate Not supported
i2.2xlarge High Not supported
i2.4xlarge High Not supported
i2.8xlarge 10 Gigabit Not supported
i3.large Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i3.xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i3.2xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i3.4xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i3.8xlarge 10 Gigabit ENA
i3.16xlarge 25 Gigabit ENA
i3.metal 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.large Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.2xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.3xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.6xlarge 25 Gigabit ENA
i3en.12xlarge 50 Gigabit ENA | EFA
i3en.24xlarge 100 Gigabit ENA | EFA
i3en.metal 100 Gigabit ENA | EFA
i4i.large Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i4i.xlarge Up to 10 Gigabit ENA
i4i.2xlarge Up to 12 Gigabit ENA
i4i.4xlarge Up to 25 Gigabit ENA
i4i.8xlarge 18.75 Gigabit ENA
i4i.16xlarge 37.5 Gigabit ENA
i4i.32xlarge 75 Gigabit ENA | EFA
i4i.metal 75 Gigabit ENA | EFA

The following table shows the baseline and burst bandwidth for instance types that use the network I/O credit mechanism to burst beyond their baseline bandwidth.

Instance type Baseline bandwidth (Gbps) Burst bandwidth (Gbps)
d2.xlarge 1.25 2.8
d2.2xlarge 2.5 10.0
d2.4xlarge 5.0 10.0
d2.8xlarge 5.0 10.0
d3.xlarge 3.0 15.0
d3.2xlarge 6.0 15.0
d3.4xlarge 12.5 15.0
d3en.xlarge 6.0 25.0
d3en.2xlarge 12.5 25.0
h1.2xlarge 2.5 10.0
h1.4xlarge 5.0 10.0
i2.xlarge 0.7 2.8
i2.2xlarge 1.0 10.0
i2.4xlarge 2.0 10.0
i2.8xlarge 5.0 10.0
i3.large 0.75 10.0
i3.xlarge 1.25 10.0
i3.2xlarge 2.5 10.0
i3.4xlarge 5.0 10.0
i3en.large 2.1 25.0
i3en.xlarge 4.2 25.0
i3en.2xlarge 8.4 25.0
i3en.3xlarge 12.5 25.0
i4i.large 0.781 10.0
i4i.xlarge 1.875 10.0
i4i.2xlarge 4.687 12.0
i4i.4xlarge 9.375 25.0

Amazon EBS I/O performance

Amazon EBS optimized instances use an optimized configuration stack and provide additional, dedicated capacity for Amazon EBS I/O. This optimization provides the best performance for your Amazon EBS volumes by minimizing contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other traffic from your instance.

For more information, see Amazon EBS–optimized instances.

SSD-based instance store volume I/O performance

The primary data storage for D2, D3, and D3en instances is HDD instance store volumes. The primary data storage for I3 and I3en instances is non-volatile memory express (NVMe) SSD instance store volumes.

Instance store volumes persist only for the life of the instance. When you stop, hibernate, or terminate an instance, the applications and data in its instance store volumes are erased. We recommend that you regularly back up or replicate important data in your instance store volumes. For more information, see Amazon EC2 instance store and SSD instance store volumes.

If you use all the SSD-based instance store volumes available to your instance, you can get up to the IOPS (4,096 byte block size) performance listed in the following table (at queue depth saturation). Otherwise, you get lower IOPS performance.

Instance Size 100% Random Read IOPS Write IOPS
i3.large 100,125 35,000
i3.xlarge 206,250 70,000
i3.2xlarge 412,500 180,000
i3.4xlarge 825,000 360,000
i3.8xlarge 1,650,000 720,000
i3.16xlarge 3,300,000 1,400,000
i3.metal 3,300,000 1,400,000
i3en.large 42,500 32,500
i3en.xlarge 85,000 65,000
i3en.2xlarge 170,000 130,000
i3en.3xlarge 250,000 200,000
i3en.6xlarge 500,000 400,000
i3en.12xlarge 1,000,000 800,000
i3en.24xlarge 2,000,000 1,600,000
i3en.metal 2,000,000 1,600,000
i4i.large 50,000 27,500
i4i.xlarge 100,000 55,000
i4i.2xlarge 200,000 110,000
i4i.4xlarge 400,000 220,000
i4i.8xlarge 800,000 440,000
i4i.16xlarge 1,600,000 880,000
i4i.32xlarge 3,200,000 1,760,000
i4i.metal 3,200,000 1,760,000

As you fill your SSD-based instance store volumes, the I/O performance that you get decreases. This is due to the extra work that the SSD controller must do to find available space, rewrite existing data, and erase unused space so that it can be rewritten. This process of garbage collection results in internal write amplification to the SSD, expressed as the ratio of SSD write operations to user write operations. This decrease in performance is even larger if the write operations are not in multiples of 4,096 bytes or not aligned to a 4,096-byte boundary. If you write a smaller amount of bytes or bytes that are not aligned, the SSD controller must read the surrounding data and store the result in a new location. This pattern results in significantly increased write amplification, increased latency, and dramatically reduced I/O performance.

SSD controllers can use several strategies to reduce the impact of write amplification. One such strategy is to reserve space in the SSD instance storage so that the controller can more efficiently manage the space available for write operations. This is called over-provisioning. The SSD-based instance store volumes provided to an instance don't have any space reserved for over-provisioning. To reduce write amplification, we recommend that you leave 10% of the volume unpartitioned so that the SSD controller can use it for over-provisioning. This decreases the storage that you can use, but increases performance even if the disk is close to full capacity.

For instance store volumes that support TRIM, you can use the TRIM command to notify the SSD controller whenever you no longer need data that you've written. This provides the controller with more free space, which can reduce write amplification and increase performance. For more information, see Instance store volume TRIM support.

For a comparison of the volume size across all instance types that support instance store volumes, see the Available instance store volumes table.

Release notes

  • Instances built on the Nitro System have the following requirements:

    The current Amazon Windows AMIs meet these requirements.

  • Launching a bare metal instance boots the underlying server, which includes verifying all hardware and firmware components. This means that it can take 20 minutes from the time the instance enters the running state until it becomes available over the network.

  • To attach or detach EBS volumes or secondary network interfaces from a bare metal instance requires PCIe native hotplug support.

  • Bare metal instances use a PCI-based serial device rather than an I/O port-based serial device. The upstream Linux kernel and the latest Amazon Linux AMIs support this device. Bare metal instances also provide an ACPI SPCR table to enable the system to automatically use the PCI-based serial device. The latest Windows AMIs automatically use the PCI-based serial device.

  • The d3.8xlarge and d3en.12xlarge instances support a maximum of three attachments, including the root volume. If you exceed the attachment limit when you add a network interface or EBS volume, this causes attachment issues on your instance.

  • There is a limit on the total number of instances that you can launch in a Region, and there are additional limits on some instance types. For more information, see How many instances can I run in Amazon EC2? in the Amazon EC2 FAQ.