Querying Application Load Balancer logs - Amazon Athena
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Querying Application Load Balancer logs

An Application Load Balancer is a load balancing option for Elastic Load Balancing that enables traffic distribution in a microservices deployment using containers. Querying Application Load Balancer logs allows you to see the source of traffic, latency, and bytes transferred to and from Elastic Load Balancing instances and backend applications. For more information, see Access logs for your Application Load Balancer and Connection logs for your Application Load Balancer in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers.

Prerequisites

Creating the table for ALB access logs

  1. Copy and paste the following CREATE TABLE statement into the query editor in the Athena console, and then modify it as necessary for your own log entry requirements. For information about getting started with the Athena console, see Getting started. Replace the path in the LOCATION clause with your Amazon S3 access log folder location. For more information about access log file location, see Access log files in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers.

    For information about each log file field, see Access log entries in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers.

    Note

    The following example CREATE TABLE statement includes the recently added classification, classification_reason, and conn_trace_id ('traceability ID', or TID) columns. To create a table for Application Load Balancer access logs that do not contain these entries, remove the corresponding columns from the CREATE TABLE statement and modify the regular expression accordingly.

    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS alb_access_logs ( type string, time string, elb string, client_ip string, client_port int, target_ip string, target_port int, request_processing_time double, target_processing_time double, response_processing_time double, elb_status_code int, target_status_code string, received_bytes bigint, sent_bytes bigint, request_verb string, request_url string, request_proto string, user_agent string, ssl_cipher string, ssl_protocol string, target_group_arn string, trace_id string, domain_name string, chosen_cert_arn string, matched_rule_priority string, request_creation_time string, actions_executed string, redirect_url string, lambda_error_reason string, target_port_list string, target_status_code_list string, classification string, classification_reason string, conn_trace_id string ) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( 'serialization.format' = '1', 'input.regex' = '([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*):([0-9]*) ([^ ]*)[:-]([0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) (|[-0-9]*) (-|[-0-9]*) ([-0-9]*) ([-0-9]*) \"([^ ]*) (.*) (- |[^ ]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" ([A-Z0-9-_]+) ([A-Za-z0-9.-]*) ([^ ]*) \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" ([-.0-9]*) ([^ ]*) \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^ ]*)\" \"([^\s]+?)\" \"([^\s]+)\" \"([^ ]*)\" \"([^ ]*)\" ?([^ ]*)?( .*)?') LOCATION 's3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/access-log-folder-path/'
  2. Run the query in the Athena console. After the query completes, Athena registers the alb_access_logs table, making the data in it ready for you to issue queries.

Creating the table for ALB access logs in Athena using partition projection

Because ALB access logs have a known structure whose partition scheme you can specify in advance, you can reduce query runtime and automate partition management by using the Athena partition projection feature. Partition projection automatically adds new partitions as new data is added. This removes the need for you to manually add partitions by using ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION.

The following example CREATE TABLE statement automatically uses partition projection on ALB access logs from a specified date until the present for a single Amazon region. The statement is based on the example in the previous section but adds PARTITIONED BY and TBLPROPERTIES clauses to enable partition projection. In the LOCATION and storage.location.template clauses, replace the placeholders with values that identify the Amazon S3 bucket location of your ALB access logs. For more information about access log file location, see Access log files in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers. For projection.day.range, replace 2022/01/01 with the starting date that you want to use. After you run the query successfully, you can query the table. You do not have to run ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION to load the partitions. For information about each log file field, see Access log entries.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS alb_access_logs ( type string, time string, elb string, client_ip string, client_port int, target_ip string, target_port int, request_processing_time double, target_processing_time double, response_processing_time double, elb_status_code int, target_status_code string, received_bytes bigint, sent_bytes bigint, request_verb string, request_url string, request_proto string, user_agent string, ssl_cipher string, ssl_protocol string, target_group_arn string, trace_id string, domain_name string, chosen_cert_arn string, matched_rule_priority string, request_creation_time string, actions_executed string, redirect_url string, lambda_error_reason string, target_port_list string, target_status_code_list string, classification string, classification_reason string, conn_trace_id string ) PARTITIONED BY ( day STRING ) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( 'serialization.format' = '1', 'input.regex' = '([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*):([0-9]*) ([^ ]*)[:-]([0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) ([-.0-9]*) (|[-0-9]*) (-|[-0-9]*) ([-0-9]*) ([-0-9]*) \"([^ ]*) (.*) (- |[^ ]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" ([A-Z0-9-_]+) ([A-Za-z0-9.-]*) ([^ ]*) \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" ([-.0-9]*) ([^ ]*) \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^\"]*)\" \"([^ ]*)\" \"([^\s]+?)\" \"([^\s]+)\" \"([^ ]*)\" \"([^ ]*)\" ?([^ ]*)?( .*)?') LOCATION 's3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/AWSLogs/<ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/elasticloadbalancing/<REGION>/' TBLPROPERTIES ( "projection.enabled" = "true", "projection.day.type" = "date", "projection.day.range" = "2022/01/01,NOW", "projection.day.format" = "yyyy/MM/dd", "projection.day.interval" = "1", "projection.day.interval.unit" = "DAYS", "storage.location.template" = "s3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/AWSLogs/<ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/elasticloadbalancing/<REGION>/${day}" )

For more information about partition projection, see Partition projection with Amazon Athena.

Example queries for ALB access logs

The following query counts the number of HTTP GET requests received by the load balancer grouped by the client IP address:

SELECT COUNT(request_verb) AS count, request_verb, client_ip FROM alb_logs GROUP BY request_verb, client_ip LIMIT 100;

Another query shows the URLs visited by Safari browser users:

SELECT request_url FROM alb_logs WHERE user_agent LIKE '%Safari%' LIMIT 10;

The following query shows records that have ELB status code values greater than or equal to 500.

SELECT * FROM alb_logs WHERE elb_status_code >= 500

The following example shows how to parse the logs by datetime:

SELECT client_ip, sum(received_bytes) FROM alb_logs WHERE parse_datetime(time,'yyyy-MM-dd''T''HH:mm:ss.SSSSSS''Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2018-05-30-12:00:00','yyyy-MM-dd-HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2018-05-31-00:00:00','yyyy-MM-dd-HH:mm:ss') GROUP BY client_ip;

The following query queries the table that uses partition projection for all ALB logs from the specified day.

SELECT * FROM alb_logs WHERE day = '2022/02/12'

Creating the table for ALB connection logs

  1. Copy and paste the following example CREATE TABLE statement into the query editor in the Athena console, and then modify it as necessary for your own log entry requirements. For information about getting started with the Athena console, see Getting started. Replace the path in the LOCATION clause with your Amazon S3 connection log folder location. For more information about connection log file location, see Connection log files in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers. For information about each log file field, see Connection log entries.

    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS alb_connection_logs ( time string, client_ip string, client_port int, listener_port int, tls_protocol string, tls_cipher string, tls_handshake_latency double, leaf_client_cert_subject string, leaf_client_cert_validity string, leaf_client_cert_serial_number string, tls_verify_status string, conn_trace_id string ) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( 'serialization.format' = '1', 'input.regex' = '([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([0-9]*) ([0-9]*) ([A-Za-z0-9.-]*) ([^ ]*) ([-.0-9]*) \"([^\"]*)\" ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ?([^ ]*)?( .*)?') LOCATION 's3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/connection-log-folder-path/'
  2. Run the query in the Athena console. After the query completes, Athena registers the alb_connection_logs table, making the data in it ready for you to issue queries.

Creating the table for ALB connection logs in Athena using partition projection

Because ALB connection logs have a known structure whose partition scheme you can specify in advance, you can reduce query runtime and automate partition management by using the Athena partition projection feature. Partition projection automatically adds new partitions as new data is added. This removes the need for you to manually add partitions by using ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION.

The following example CREATE TABLE statement automatically uses partition projection on ALB connection logs from a specified date until the present for a single Amazon region. The statement is based on the example in the previous section but adds PARTITIONED BY and TBLPROPERTIES clauses to enable partition projection. In the LOCATION and storage.location.template clauses, replace the placeholders with values that identify the Amazon S3 bucket location of your ALB connection logs. For more information about connection log file location, see Connection log files in the User Guide for Application Load Balancers. For projection.day.range, replace 2023/01/01 with the starting date that you want to use. After you run the query successfully, you can query the table. You do not have to run ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION to load the partitions. For information about each log file field, see Connection log entries.

CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS alb_connection_logs ( time string, client_ip string, client_port int, listener_port int, tls_protocol string, tls_cipher string, tls_handshake_latency double, leaf_client_cert_subject string, leaf_client_cert_validity string, leaf_client_cert_serial_number string, tls_verify_status string, conn_trace_id string ) PARTITIONED BY ( day STRING ) ROW FORMAT SERDE 'org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.RegexSerDe' WITH SERDEPROPERTIES ( 'serialization.format' = '1', 'input.regex' = '([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([0-9]*) ([0-9]*) ([A-Za-z0-9.-]*) ([^ ]*) ([-.0-9]*) \"([^\"]*)\" ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ([^ ]*) ?([^ ]*)?( .*)?') LOCATION 's3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/AWSLogs/<ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/elasticloadbalancing/<REGION>/' TBLPROPERTIES ( "projection.enabled" = "true", "projection.day.type" = "date", "projection.day.range" = "2023/01/01,NOW", "projection.day.format" = "yyyy/MM/dd", "projection.day.interval" = "1", "projection.day.interval.unit" = "DAYS", "storage.location.template" = "s3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/AWSLogs/<ACCOUNT-NUMBER>/elasticloadbalancing/<REGION>/${day}" )

For more information about partition projection, see Partition projection with Amazon Athena.

Example queries for ALB connection logs

The following query count occurrences where the value for tls_verify_status was not 'Success', grouped by client IP address:

SELECT DISTINCT client_ip, count() AS count FROM alb_connection_logs WHERE tls_verify_status != 'Success' GROUP BY client_ip ORDER BY count() DESC;

The following query searches occurrences where the value for tls_handshake_latency was over 2 seconds in the specified time range:

SELECT * FROM alb_connection_logs WHERE ( parse_datetime(time, 'yyyy-MM-dd''T''HH:mm:ss.SSSSSS''Z') BETWEEN parse_datetime('2024-01-01-00:00:00', 'yyyy-MM-dd-HH:mm:ss') AND parse_datetime('2024-03-20-00:00:00', 'yyyy-MM-dd-HH:mm:ss') ) AND (tls_handshake_latency >= 2.0);

Additional resources