Amazon Athena Oracle connector - Amazon Athena
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Amazon Athena Oracle connector

The Amazon Athena connector for Oracle enables Amazon Athena to run SQL queries on data stored in Oracle running on-premises or on Amazon EC2 or Amazon RDS. You can also use the connector to query data on Oracle exadata.



  • Write DDL operations are not supported.

  • In a multiplexer setup, the spill bucket and prefix are shared across all database instances.

  • Any relevant Lambda limits. For more information, see Lambda quotas in the Amazon Lambda Developer Guide.


The following terms relate to the Oracle connector.

  • Database instance – Any instance of a database deployed on premises, on Amazon EC2, or on Amazon RDS.

  • Handler – A Lambda handler that accesses your database instance. A handler can be for metadata or for data records.

  • Metadata handler – A Lambda handler that retrieves metadata from your database instance.

  • Record handler – A Lambda handler that retrieves data records from your database instance.

  • Composite handler – A Lambda handler that retrieves both metadata and data records from your database instance.

  • Property or parameter – A database property used by handlers to extract database information. You configure these properties as Lambda environment variables.

  • Connection String – A string of text used to establish a connection to a database instance.

  • Catalog – A non-Amazon Glue catalog registered with Athena that is a required prefix for the connection_string property.

  • Multiplexing handler – A Lambda handler that can accept and use multiple database connections.


Use the Lambda environment variables in this section to configure the Oracle connector.

Connection string

Use a JDBC connection string in the following format to connect to a database instance.


If your password contains special characters (for example, some.password), enclose your password in double quotes when you pass it to the connection string (for example, "some.password"). Failure to do so can result in an Invalid Oracle URL specified error.

Using a multiplexing handler

You can use a multiplexer to connect to multiple database instances with a single Lambda function. Requests are routed by catalog name. Use the following classes in Lambda.

Handler Class
Composite handler OracleMuxCompositeHandler
Metadata handler OracleMuxMetadataHandler
Record handler OracleMuxRecordHandler

Multiplexing handler parameters

Parameter Description
$catalog_connection_string Required. A database instance connection string. Prefix the environment variable with the name of the catalog used in Athena. For example, if the catalog registered with Athena is myoraclecatalog, then the environment variable name is myoraclecatalog_connection_string.
default Required. The default connection string. This string is used when the catalog is lambda:${AWS_LAMBDA_FUNCTION_NAME}.

The following example properties are for a Oracle MUX Lambda function that supports two database instances: oracle1 (the default), and oracle2.

Property Value
default oracle://jdbc:oracle:thin:${Test/RDS/Oracle1}@//oracle1.hostname:port/servicename
oracle_catalog1_connection_string oracle://jdbc:oracle:thin:${Test/RDS/Oracle1}@//oracle1.hostname:port/servicename
oracle_catalog2_connection_string oracle://jdbc:oracle:thin:${Test/RDS/Oracle2}@//oracle2.hostname:port/servicename

Providing credentials

To provide a user name and password for your database in your JDBC connection string, you can use connection string properties or Amazon Secrets Manager.

  • Connection String – A user name and password can be specified as properties in the JDBC connection string.


    As a security best practice, do not use hardcoded credentials in your environment variables or connection strings. For information about moving your hardcoded secrets to Amazon Secrets Manager, see Move hardcoded secrets to Amazon Secrets Manager in the Amazon Secrets Manager User Guide.

  • Amazon Secrets Manager – To use the Athena Federated Query feature with Amazon Secrets Manager, the VPC connected to your Lambda function should have internet access or a VPC endpoint to connect to Secrets Manager.

    You can put the name of a secret in Amazon Secrets Manager in your JDBC connection string. The connector replaces the secret name with the username and password values from Secrets Manager.

    For Amazon RDS database instances, this support is tightly integrated. If you use Amazon RDS, we highly recommend using Amazon Secrets Manager and credential rotation. If your database does not use Amazon RDS, store the credentials as JSON in the following format:

    {"username": "${username}", "password": "${password}"}

If your password contains special characters (for example, some.password), enclose your password in double quotes when you store it in Secrets Manager (for example, "some.password"). Failure to do so can result in an Invalid Oracle URL specified error.

Example connection string with secret name

The following string has the secret name ${Test/RDS/Oracle}.


The connector uses the secret name to retrieve secrets and provide the user name and password, as in the following example.


Currently, the Oracle connector recognizes the UID and PWD JDBC properties.

Using a single connection handler

You can use the following single connection metadata and record handlers to connect to a single Oracle instance.

Handler type Class
Composite handler OracleCompositeHandler
Metadata handler OracleMetadataHandler
Record handler OracleRecordHandler

Single connection handler parameters

Parameter Description
default Required. The default connection string.
IsFIPSEnabled Optional. Set to true when FIPS mode is enabled. The default is false.

The single connection handlers support one database instance and must provide a default connection string parameter. All other connection strings are ignored.

The connector supports SSL based connections to Amazon RDS instances. Support is limited to the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol and to authentication of the server by the client. Mutual authentication it is not supported in Amazon RDS. The second row in the table below shows the syntax for using SSL.

The following example property is for a single Oracle instance supported by a Lambda function.

Property Value
default oracle://jdbc:oracle:thin:${Test/RDS/Oracle}@//hostname:port/servicename

Spill parameters

The Lambda SDK can spill data to Amazon S3. All database instances accessed by the same Lambda function spill to the same location.

Parameter Description
spill_bucket Required. Spill bucket name.
spill_prefix Required. Spill bucket key prefix.
spill_put_request_headers (Optional) A JSON encoded map of request headers and values for the Amazon S3 putObject request that is used for spilling (for example, {"x-amz-server-side-encryption" : "AES256"}). For other possible headers, see PutObject in the Amazon Simple Storage Service API Reference.

Data type support

The following table shows the corresponding data types for JDBC, Oracle, and Arrow.

JDBC Oracle Arrow
Boolean boolean Bit
Integer N/A Tiny
Short smallint Smallint
Integer integer Int
Long bigint Bigint
float float4 Float4
Double float8 Float8
Date date DateDay
Timestamp timestamp DateMilli
String text Varchar
Bytes bytes Varbinary
BigDecimal numeric(p,s) Decimal
ARRAY N/A (see note) List

Partitions and splits

Partitions are used to determine how to generate splits for the connector. Athena constructs a synthetic column of type varchar that represents the partitioning scheme for the table to help the connector generate splits. The connector does not modify the actual table definition.


Oracle supports native partitions. The Athena Oracle connector can retrieve data from these partitions in parallel. If you want to query very large datasets with uniform partition distribution, native partitioning is highly recommended. Selecting a subset of columns significantly speeds up query runtime and reduces data scanned. The Oracle connector is resilient to throttling due to concurrency. However, query runtimes tend to be long.

The Athena Oracle connector performs predicate pushdown to decrease the data scanned by the query. Simple predicates and complex expressions are pushed down to the connector to reduce the amount of data scanned and decrease query execution run time.


A predicate is an expression in the WHERE clause of a SQL query that evaluates to a Boolean value and filters rows based on multiple conditions. The Athena Oracle connector can combine these expressions and push them directly to Oracle for enhanced functionality and to reduce the amount of data scanned.

The following Athena Oracle connector operators support predicate pushdown:

  • Boolean: AND, OR, NOT




Combined pushdown example

For enhanced querying capabilities, combine the pushdown types, as in the following example:

SELECT * FROM my_table WHERE col_a > 10 AND ((col_a + col_b) > (col_c % col_d)) AND (col_e IN ('val1', 'val2', 'val3') OR col_f LIKE '%pattern%');

Passthrough queries

The Oracle connector supports passthrough queries. Passthrough queries use a table function to push your full query down to the data source for execution.

To use passthrough queries with Oracle, you can use the following syntax:

SELECT * FROM TABLE( system.query( query => 'query string' ))

The following example query pushes down a query to a data source in Oracle. The query selects all columns in the customer table.

SELECT * FROM TABLE( system.query( query => 'SELECT * FROM customer' ))

License information

By using this connector, you acknowledge the inclusion of third party components, a list of which can be found in the pom.xml file for this connector, and agree to the terms in the respective third party licenses provided in the LICENSE.txt file on

Additional resources

For the latest JDBC driver version information, see the pom.xml file for the Oracle connector on

For additional information about this connector, visit the corresponding site on