Using an external MySQL database or Amazon Aurora - Amazon EMR
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Using an external MySQL database or Amazon Aurora

To use an external MySQL database or Amazon Aurora as your Hive metastore, you override the default configuration values for the metastore in Hive to specify the external database location, either on an Amazon RDS MySQL instance or an Amazon Aurora PostgreSQLinstance.


Hive neither supports nor prevents concurrent write access to metastore tables. If you share metastore information between two clusters, you must ensure that you do not write to the same metastore table concurrently, unless you are writing to different partitions of the same metastore table.

The following procedure shows you how to override the default configuration values for the Hive metastore location and start a cluster using the reconfigured metastore location.

To create a metastore located outside of the EMR cluster
  1. Create a MySQL or Aurora PostgreSQL database. If you use PostgreSQL, you must configure it after you've provisioned your cluster. Only MySQL is supported at cluster creation. For information about the differences between Aurora MySQL and Aurora PostgreSQL, see Overview of Amazon Aurora MySQL and Working with Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL. For information about how to create an Amazon RDS database in general, see

  2. Modify your security groups to allow JDBC connections between your database and the ElasticMapReduce-Master security group. For information about how to modify your security groups for access, see Working with Amazon EMR-managed security groups.

  3. Set JDBC configuration values in hive-site.xml:


    If you supply sensitive information, such as passwords, to the Amazon EMR configuration API, this information is displayed for those accounts that have sufficient permissions. If you are concerned that this information could be displayed to other users, create the cluster with an administrative account and limit other users (IAM users or those with delegated credentials) to accessing services on the cluster by creating a role which explicitly denies permissions to the elasticmapreduce:DescribeCluster API key.

    1. Create a configuration file called hiveConfiguration.json containing edits to hive-site.xml as shown in the following example.

      Replace hostname with the DNS address of your Amazon RDS instance running the database, and username and password with the credentials for your database. For more information about connecting to MySQL and Aurora database instances, see Connecting to a DB instance running the MySQL database engine and Connecting to an Athena DB cluster in the Amazon RDS User Guide. javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL is the JDBC connect string for a JDBC metastore. javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName is the driver class name for a JDBC metastore.

      The MySQL JDBC drivers are installed by Amazon EMR.

      The value property can not contain any spaces or carriage returns. It should appear all on one line.

      [ { "Classification": "hive-site", "Properties": { "javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL": "jdbc:mysql://hostname:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true", "javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName": "org.mariadb.jdbc.Driver", "javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName": "username", "javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword": "password" } } ]
    2. Reference the hiveConfiguration.json file when you create the cluster as shown in the following Amazon CLI command. In this command, the file is stored locally, you can also upload the file to Amazon S3 and reference it there, for example, s3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/hiveConfiguration.json.


      Linux line continuation characters (\) are included for readability. They can be removed or used in Linux commands. For Windows, remove them or replace with a caret (^).

      aws emr create-cluster --release-label emr-7.0.0 --instance-type m5.xlarge --instance-count 2 \ --applications Name=Hive --configurations file://hiveConfiguration.json --use-default-roles
  4. Connect to the primary node of your cluster.

    For information about how to connect to the primary node, see Connect to the primary node using SSH in the Amazon EMR Management Guide.

  5. Create your Hive tables specifying the location on Amazon S3 by entering a command similar to the following:

    CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE IF NOT EXISTS table_name ( key int, value int ) LOCATION s3://DOC-EXAMPLE-BUCKET/hdfs/
  6. Add your Hive script to the running cluster.

Your Hive cluster runs using the metastore located in Amazon RDS. Launch all additional Hive clusters that share this metastore by specifying the metastore location.