Adding jobs in Amazon Glue - Amazon Glue
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Adding jobs in Amazon Glue

An Amazon Glue job encapsulates a script that connects to your source data, processes it, and then writes it out to your data target. Typically, a job runs extract, transform, and load (ETL) scripts. Jobs can also run general-purpose Python scripts (Python shell jobs.) Amazon Glue triggers can start jobs based on a schedule or event, or on demand. You can monitor job runs to understand runtime metrics such as completion status, duration, and start time.

You can use scripts that Amazon Glue generates or you can provide your own. With a source schema and target location or schema, the Amazon Glue code generator can automatically create an Apache Spark API (PySpark) script. You can use this script as a starting point and edit it to meet your goals.

Amazon Glue can write output files in several data formats, including JSON, CSV, ORC (Optimized Row Columnar), Apache Parquet, and Apache Avro. For some data formats, common compression formats can be written.

There are three types of jobs in Amazon Glue: Spark, Streaming ETL, and Python shell.

  • A Spark job is run in an Apache Spark environment managed by Amazon Glue. It processes data in batches.

  • A streaming ETL job is similar to a Spark job, except that it performs ETL on data streams. It uses the Apache Spark Structured Streaming framework. Some Spark job features are not available to streaming ETL jobs.

  • A Python shell job runs Python scripts as a shell and supports a Python version that depends on the Amazon Glue version you are using. You can use these jobs to schedule and run tasks that don't require an Apache Spark environment.

Defining job properties for Spark jobs

When you define your job on the Amazon Glue console, you provide values for properties to control the Amazon Glue runtime environment.

The following list describes the properties of a Spark job. For the properties of a Python shell job, see Defining job properties for Python shell jobs. For properties of a streaming ETL job, see Defining job properties for a streaming ETL job.

The properties are listed in the order in which they appear on the Add job wizard on Amazon Glue console.

Name

Provide a UTF-8 string with a maximum length of 255 characters.

IAM role

Specify the IAM role that is used for authorization to resources used to run the job and access data stores. For more information about permissions for running jobs in Amazon Glue, see Managing access permissions for Amazon Glue resources.

Type

Specify the type of job environment to run:

  • Choose Spark to run an Apache Spark ETL script with the job command glueetl.

  • Choose Spark Streaming to run a Apache Spark streaming ETL script with the job command gluestreaming. For more information, see Streaming ETL jobs in Amazon Glue.

  • Choose Python shell to run a Python script with the job command pythonshell. For more information, see Python shell jobs in Amazon Glue.

Amazon Glue version

Amazon Glue version determines the versions of Apache Spark and Python that are available to the job, as specified in the following table.

Amazon Glue version Supported Spark and Python versions
0.9
  • Spark 2.2.1

  • Python 2.7

1.0
  • Spark 2.4.3

  • Python 2.7

  • Python 3.6

2.0
  • Spark 2.4.3

  • Python 3.7

3.0
  • Spark 3.1.1

  • Python 3.7

Jobs that were created without specifying a Amazon Glue version default to Amazon Glue 2.0.

This job runs (generated or custom script)

The code in the ETL script defines your job's logic. The script can be coded in Python or Scala. You can choose whether the script that the job runs is generated by Amazon Glue or provided by you. You provide the script name and location in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3). Confirm that there isn't a file with the same name as the script directory in the path. To learn more about writing scripts, see Editing Spark scripts in the Amazon Glue console.

Scala class name

If the script is coded in Scala, you must provide a class name. The default class name for Amazon Glue generated scripts is GlueApp.

Temporary directory

Provide the location of a working directory in Amazon S3 where temporary intermediate results are written when Amazon Glue runs the script. Confirm that there isn't a file with the same name as the temporary directory in the path. This directory is used when Amazon Glue reads and writes to Amazon Redshift and by certain Amazon Glue transforms.

Note

Amazon Glue creates a temporary bucket for jobs if a bucket doesn't already exist in a region. This bucket might permit public access. You can either modify the bucket in Amazon S3 to set the public access block, or delete the bucket later after all jobs in that region have completed.

Note

Source and target are not listed under the console Details tab for a job. Review the script to see source and target details.

Advanced Properties
Job bookmark

Specify how Amazon Glue processes state information when the job runs. You can have it remember previously processed data, update state information, or ignore state information. For more information, see Tracking processed data using job bookmarks.

Monitoring options
Job metrics

Turn on or turn off the creation of Amazon CloudWatch metrics when this job runs. To see profiling data, you must enable this option. For more information about how to turn on and visualize metrics, see Job monitoring and debugging.

Continuous logging

Turn on continuous logging to Amazon CloudWatch. If this option is not enabled, logs are available only after the job completes. For more information, see Continuous logging for Amazon Glue jobs.

Spark UI

Turn on the use of Spark UI for monitoring this job. For more information, see Enabling the Apache Spark web UI for Amazon Glue jobs.

Tags

Tag your job with a Tag key and an optional Tag value. After tag keys are created, they are read-only. Use tags on some resources to help you organize and identify them. For more information, see Amazon tags in Amazon Glue.

Security configuration, script libraries, and job parameters
Security configuration

Choose a security configuration from the list. A security configuration specifies how the data at the Amazon S3 target is encrypted: no encryption, server-side encryption with Amazon KMS-managed keys (SSE-KMS), or Amazon S3-managed encryption keys (SSE-S3).

Server-side encryption

If you select this option, when the ETL job writes to Amazon S3, the data is encrypted at rest using SSE-S3 encryption. Both your Amazon S3 data target and any data that is written to an Amazon S3 temporary directory is encrypted. This option is passed as a job parameter. For more information, see Protecting Data Using Server-Side Encryption with Amazon S3-Managed Encryption Keys (SSE-S3) in the Amazon Simple Storage Service User Guide.

Important

This option is ignored if a security configuration is specified.

Python library path, Dependent jars path, and Referenced files path

Specify these options if your script requires them. You can define the comma-separated Amazon S3 paths for these options when you define the job. You can override these paths when you run the job. For more information, see Providing your own custom scripts.

Worker type

The following worker types are available:

  • Standard – When you choose this type, you also provide a value for Maximum capacity. Maximum capacity is the number of Amazon Glue data processing units (DPUs) that can be allocated when this job runs. A DPU is a relative measure of processing power that consists of 4 vCPUs of compute capacity and 16 GB of memory. The Standard worker type has a 50 GB disk and 2 executors.

  • G.1X – When you choose this type, you also provide a value for Number of workers. Each worker maps to 1 DPU (4 vCPU, 16 GB of memory, 64 GB disk), and provides 1 executor per worker. We recommend this worker type for memory-intensive jobs. This is the default Worker type for Amazon Glue Version 2.0 or later jobs.

  • G.2X – When you choose this type, you also provide a value for Number of workers. Each worker maps to 2 DPU (8 vCPU, 32 GB of memory, 128 GB disk), and provides 1 executor per worker. We recommend this worker type for memory-intensive jobs and jobs that run machine learning transforms.

  • G.025X – When you choose this type, you also provide a value for Number of workers. Each worker maps to 0.25 DPU (2 vCPU, 4 GB of memory, 64 GB disk), and provides 1 executor per worker. We recommend this worker type for low volume streaming jobs. This worker type is only available for Amazon Glue version 3.0 streaming jobs.

You are charged an hourly rate based on the number of DPUs used to run your ETL jobs. For more information, see the Amazon Glue pricing page.

For Amazon Glue version 1.0 or earlier jobs, when you configure a job using the console and specify a Worker type of Standard, the Maximum capacity is set and the Number of workers becomes the value of Maximum capacity - 1. If you use the Amazon Command Line Interface (Amazon CLI) or Amazon SDK, you can specify the Max capacity parameter, or you can specify both Worker type and the Number of workers.

For Amazon Glue version 2.0 or later jobs, you cannot instead specify a Maximum capacity. Instead, you should specify a Worker type and the Number of workers. For more information, see Jobs.

Number of workers

For G.1X and G.2X worker types, you must specify the number of workers that are allocated when the job runs.

Execution class

When you configure a job using Amazon Studio or the API you may specify a standard or flexible job execution class. Your jobs may have varying degrees of priority and time sensitivity. The standard execution-class is ideal for time-sensitive workloads that require fast job startup and dedicated resources.

The flexible execution class is appropriate for non-urgent jobs such as pre-production jobs, testing, and one-time data loads. Flexible job runs are supported for jobs using Amazon Glue version 3.0 or later and G.1X or G.2X worker types.

Flex job runs are billed based on the number of workers running at any point in time. Number of workers may be added or removed for a running flexible job run. Instead of billing as a simple calculation of Max Capacity * Execution Time, each worker will contribute for the time it ran during the job run. The bill is the sum of (Number of DPUs per worker * time each worker ran).

For more information, see the help panel in Amazon Studio, or Jobs and Job runs.

Maximum capacity

For Amazon Glue version 1.0 or earlier jobs, using the standard worker type, you must specify the maximum number of Amazon Glue data processing units (DPUs) that can be allocated when this job runs. You are charged an hourly rate based on the number of DPUs used to run your ETL jobs. For more information, see the Amazon Glue pricing page.

Choose an integer from 2 to 100. The default is 10. This job type cannot have a fractional DPU allocation.

For Amazon Glue version 2.0 or later jobs, you cannot instead specify a Maximum capacity. Instead, you should specify a Worker type and the Number of workers. For more information, see Jobs.

Max concurrency

Sets the maximum number of concurrent runs that are allowed for this job. The default is 1. An error is returned when this threshold is reached. The maximum value you can specify is controlled by a service limit. For example, if a previous run of a job is still running when a new instance is started, you might want to return an error to prevent two instances of the same job from running concurrently.

Job timeout

Sets the maximum execution time in minutes. The default is 2880 minutes (48 hours) for batch jobs. When the job execution time exceeds this limit, the job run state changes to TIMEOUT.

For streaming jobs that run indefinitely, leave the value blank, which is the default value for streaming jobs.

Delay notification threshold

Sets the threshold (in minutes) before a delay notification is sent. You can set this threshold to send notifications when a RUNNING, STARTING, or STOPPING job run takes more than an expected number of minutes.

Number of retries

Specify the number of times, from 0 to 10, that Amazon Glue should automatically restart the job if it fails. Jobs that reach the timeout limit are not restarted.

Job parameters

A set of key-value pairs that are passed as named parameters to the script. These are default values that are used when the script is run, but you can override them in triggers or when you run the job. You must prefix the key name with --; for example: --myKey. You pass job parameters as a map when using the Amazon Command Line Interface.

For examples, see Python parameters in Passing and accessing Python parameters in Amazon Glue.

Non-overrideable Job parameters

A set of special job parameters that cannot be overridden in triggers or when you run the job. These key-value pairs are passed as named parameters to the script. These values are used when the script is run, and you cannot override them in triggers or when you run the job. You must prefix the key name with --; for example: --myKey. getResolvedOptions() returns both job parameters and non-overrideable job parameters in a single map. For more information, see Accessing parameters using getResolvedOptions.

Catalog options
Use Amazon Glue data catalog as the Hive metastore

Select to use the Amazon Glue Data Catalog as the Hive metastore. The IAM role used for the job must have the glue:CreateDatabase permission. A database called “default” is created in the Data Catalog if it does not exist.

Data source

Choose a Data Catalog table.

Transform type

Choose one of the following:

Change schema

Adds the ApplyMapping transform to the generated script. Allows you to change the schema of the source data and create a new target dataset.

Find matching records

Allows you to choose a machine learning transform to use to find matching records within your source data.

Target

Do one of the following:

  • To specify an Amazon S3 path or JDBC data store, choose Create tables in your data target.

  • To specify a catalog table, choose Use tables in the data catalog and update your data target.

For Amazon S3 target locations, provide the location of a directory where your output is written. Confirm that there isn't a file with the same name as the target path directory in the path. For JDBC targets, Amazon Glue creates schema objects as needed if the specified objects do not exist.

For more information about adding a job using the Amazon Glue console, see Working with jobs on the Amazon Glue console.

Restrictions for jobs that access Lake Formation managed tables

Keep in mind the following notes and restrictions when creating jobs that read from or write to tables managed by Amazon Lake Formation: