Optimizing storage for narrow tables - Amazon Redshift
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Optimizing storage for narrow tables

If you have a table with very few columns but a very large number of rows, the three hidden metadata identity columns (INSERT_XID, DELETE_XID, ROW_ID) will consume a disproportionate amount of the disk space for the table.

In order to optimize compression of the hidden columns, load the table in a single COPY transaction where possible. If you load the table with multiple separate COPY commands, the INSERT_XID column will not compress well. You must perform a vacuum operation if you use multiple COPY commands, but it will not improve compression of INSERT_XID.