Configure the Netty-based HTTP client - Amazon SDK for Java 2.x
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Configure the Netty-based HTTP client

The default HTTP client for asynchronous operations in the Amazon SDK for Java 2.x is the Netty-based NettyNioAsyncHttpClient. The Netty-based client is based on the asynchronous event-driven network framework of the Netty project.

As an alternative HTTP client, you can use the new Amazon CRT-based HTTP client. This topic shows you how to configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.

Access the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient

In most situations, you use the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient without any explicit configuration in asynchronous programs. You declare your asynchronous service clients and the SDK will configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient with standard values for you.

If you want to explicitly configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient or use it with multiple service clients, you need to make it available for configuration.

No configuration needed

When you declare a dependency on a service client in Maven, the SDK adds a runtime dependency on the netty-nio-client artifact. This makes the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient class available to your code at runtime, but not at compile time. If you are not configuring the Netty-based HTTP client, you don't need to specify a dependency for it.

In the following XML snippet of a Maven pom.xml file, the dependency declared with <artifactId>dynamodb-enhanced</artifactId> transitively brings in the Netty-based HTTP client. You don't need to declare a dependency specifically for it.

<dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId></groupId> <artifactId>bom</artifactId> <version>2.17.290</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId></groupId> <artifactId>dynamodb-enhanced</artifactId> </dependency> </dependencies>

With these dependencies, you cannot make any HTTP configuration changes, since the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient library is only on the runtime classpath.

Configuration needed

To configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient, you need to add a dependency on the netty-nio-client artifact at compile time.

Refer to the following example of a Maven pom.xml file to configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.

<dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId></groupId> <artifactId>bom</artifactId> <version>2.17.290</version> <type>pom</type> <scope>import</scope> </dependency> </dependencies> </dependencyManagement> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId></groupId> <artifactId>dynamodb-enhanced</artifactId> </dependency> <!-- By adding the netty-nio-client dependency, NettyNioAsyncHttpClient will be added to the compile classpath so you can configure it. --> <dependency> <groupId></groupId> <artifactId>netty-nio-client</artifactId> </dependency> </dependencies>

Use and configure the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient

You can configure an instance of NettyNioAsyncHttpClient along with building a service client, or you can configure a single instance to share across multiple service clients.

With either approach, you use the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.Builder to configure the properties for the Netty-based HTTP client instance.

Best practice: dedicate a NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance to a service client

If you need to configure an instance of the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient, we recommend that you build a dedicated NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance. You can do so by using the httpClientBuilder method of the service client's builder. This way, the lifecycle of the HTTP client is managed by the SDK, which helps avoid potential memory leaks if the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance is not closed down when it's no longer needed.

The following example creates a DynamoDbAsyncClient instance that is used by a DynamoDbEnhancedAsyncClient instance. The DynamoDbAsyncClient instance contains the NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance with connectionTimeout and maxConcurrency values. The HTTP instance is created using httpClientBuilder method of DynamoDbAsyncClient.Builder.


import; import; import; import; import; import; import java.time.Duration;


// DynamoDbAsyncClient is the lower-level client used by the enhanced client. DynamoDbAsyncClient dynamoDbAsyncClient = DynamoDbAsyncClient .builder() .httpClientBuilder(NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.builder() .connectionTimeout(Duration.ofMillis(5_000)) .maxConcurrency(100) .tlsNegotiationTimeout(Duration.ofMillis(3_500))) .defaultsMode(DefaultsMode.IN_REGION) .credentialsProvider(EnvironmentVariableCredentialsProvider.create()) .build(); // Singleton: Use dynamoDbAsyncClient and enhancedClient for all requests. DynamoDbEnhancedAsyncClient enhancedClient = DynamoDbEnhancedAsyncClient .builder() .dynamoDbClient(dynamoDbAsyncClient) .extensions(AutoGeneratedTimestampRecordExtension.create()) .build(); // Perform work with the dynamoDbAsyncClient and enhancedClient. // Requests completed: Close dynamoDbAsyncClient. dynamoDbAsyncClient.close();

Alternative approach: share a NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance

To help keep resource and memory usage lower for your application, you can configure a NettyNioAsyncHttpClient and share it across multiple service clients. The HTTP connection pool will be shared, which lowers resource usage.


When a NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance is shared, you must close it when it is ready to be disposed. The SDK will not close the instance when the service client is closed.

The following example configures a Netty-based HTTP client that is used by two service clients. The configured NettyNioAsyncHttpClient instance is passed to the httpClient method of each builder. When the service clients and the HTTP client are no longer needed, the code explicitly closes them. The code closes the HTTP client last.


import; import; import; import;


// Create a NettyNioAsyncHttpClient shared instance. SdkAsyncHttpClient nettyHttpClient = NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.builder().maxConcurrency(100).build(); // Singletons: Use the s3AsyncClient, dbAsyncClient, and enhancedAsyncClient for all requests. S3AsyncClient s3AsyncClient = S3AsyncClient.builder() .httpClient(nettyHttpClient) .build(); DynamoDbAsyncClient dbAsyncClient = DynamoDbAsyncClient.builder() .httpClient(nettyHttpClient) .defaultsMode(DefaultsMode.IN_REGION) .credentialsProvider(EnvironmentVariableCredentialsProvider.create()) .build(); DynamoDbEnhancedAsyncClient enhancedAsyncClient = DynamoDbEnhancedAsyncClient.builder() .dynamoDbClient(dbAsyncClient) .extensions(AutoGeneratedTimestampRecordExtension.create()) .build(); // Perform work with s3AsyncClient, dbAsyncClient, and enhancedAsyncClient. // Requests completed: Close all service clients. s3AsyncClient.close(); dbAsyncClient.close() nettyHttpClient.close(); // Explicitly close nettyHttpClient.

Proxy configuration example

The following code snippet uses the proxy configuration builder for the Netty HTTP client.

SdkAsyncHttpClient nettyHttpClient = NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.builder() .proxyConfiguration(ProxyConfiguration.builder() .scheme("https") .host("myproxy") .port(1234) .username("username") .password("password") .nonProxyHosts(Set.of("localhost", "")) .build()) .build();

The equivalent Java system properties for the proxy configuration are shown in the following command line snippet.

$ java -Dhttps.proxyHost=myproxy -Dhttps.proxyPort=1234 -Dhttps.proxyUser=username \ -Dhttps.proxyPassword=password -Dhttp.nonProxyHosts=localhost| -cp ... App

To use any of the HTTPS proxy system properties, the scheme property must be set in code to https. If the scheme property is not set in code, the scheme defaults to HTTP and the SDK looks only for http.* system properties.

The equivalent setup that uses environment variables is:

// Set the following environment variables. // $ export HTTPS_PROXY="https://username:password@myproxy:1234" // $ export NO_PROXY="localhost|" // Set the 'useSystemPropertyValues' to false on the proxy configuration. SdkAsyncHttpClient nettyHttpClient = NettyNioAsyncHttpClient.builder() .proxyConfiguration(ProxyConfiguration.builder() .useSystemPropertyValues(Boolean.FALSE) .build()) .build(); // Run the application. // $ java -cp ... App