AWS Key Management Service
API Reference (API Version 2014-11-01)
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GenerateDataKey

Generates a unique data key. This operation returns a plaintext copy of the data key and a copy that is encrypted under a customer master key (CMK) that you specify. You can use the plaintext key to encrypt your data outside of KMS and store the encrypted data key with the encrypted data.

GenerateDataKey returns a unique data key for each request. The bytes in the key are not related to the caller or CMK that is used to encrypt the data key.

To generate a data key, you need to specify the customer master key (CMK) that will be used to encrypt the data key. You must also specify the length of the data key using either the KeySpec or NumberOfBytes field (but not both). For common key lengths (128-bit and 256-bit symmetric keys), use the KeySpec parameter. To perform this operation on a CMK in a different AWS account, specify the key ARN or alias ARN in the value of the KeyId parameter.

You will find the plaintext copy of the data key in the Plaintext field of the response, and the encrypted copy of the data key in the CiphertextBlob field.

We recommend that you use the following pattern to encrypt data locally in your application:

  1. Use the GenerateDataKey operation to get a data encryption key.

  2. Use the plaintext data key (returned in the Plaintext field of the response) to encrypt data locally, then erase the plaintext data key from memory.

  3. Store the encrypted data key (returned in the CiphertextBlob field of the response) alongside the locally encrypted data.

To decrypt data locally:

  1. Use the Decrypt operation to decrypt the encrypted data key. The operation returns a plaintext copy of the data key.

  2. Use the plaintext data key to decrypt data locally, then erase the plaintext data key from memory.

To get only an encrypted copy of the data key, use GenerateDataKeyWithoutPlaintext. To get a cryptographically secure random byte string, use GenerateRandom.

You can use the optional encryption context to add additional security to your encryption operation. When you specify an EncryptionContext in the GenerateDataKey operation, you must specify the same encryption context (a case-sensitive exact match) in your request to Decrypt the data key. Otherwise, the request to decrypt fails with an InvalidCiphertextException. For more information, see Encryption Context in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide .

The result of this operation varies with the key state of the CMK. For details, see How Key State Affects Use of a Customer Master Key in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

Request Syntax

{ "EncryptionContext": { "string" : "string" }, "GrantTokens": [ "string" ], "KeyId": "string", "KeySpec": "string", "NumberOfBytes": number }

Request Parameters

For information about the parameters that are common to all actions, see Common Parameters.

The request accepts the following data in JSON format.

Note

In the following list, the required parameters are described first.

KeyId

An identifier for the CMK that encrypts the data key.

To specify a CMK, use its key ID, Amazon Resource Name (ARN), alias name, or alias ARN. When using an alias name, prefix it with "alias/". To specify a CMK in a different AWS account, you must use the key ARN or alias ARN.

For example:

  • Key ID: 1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab

  • Key ARN: arn:aws:kms:us-east-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab

  • Alias name: alias/ExampleAlias

  • Alias ARN: arn:aws:kms:us-east-2:111122223333:alias/ExampleAlias

To get the key ID and key ARN for a CMK, use ListKeys or DescribeKey. To get the alias name and alias ARN, use ListAliases.

Type: String

Length Constraints: Minimum length of 1. Maximum length of 2048.

Required: Yes

EncryptionContext

A set of key-value pairs that represents additional authenticated data.

For more information, see Encryption Context in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

Type: String to string map

Required: No

GrantTokens

A list of grant tokens.

For more information, see Grant Tokens in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

Type: Array of strings

Array Members: Minimum number of 0 items. Maximum number of 10 items.

Length Constraints: Minimum length of 1. Maximum length of 8192.

Required: No

KeySpec

The length of the data key. Use AES_128 to generate a 128-bit symmetric key, or AES_256 to generate a 256-bit symmetric key.

You must specify either the KeySpec or the NumberOfBytes parameter (but not both) in every GenerateDataKey request.

Type: String

Valid Values: AES_256 | AES_128

Required: No

NumberOfBytes

The length of the data key in bytes. For example, use the value 64 to generate a 512-bit data key (64 bytes is 512 bits). For 128-bit (16-byte) and 256-bit (32-byte) symmetric keys, use the KeySpec parameter.

You must specify either the KeySpec or the NumberOfBytes parameter (but not both) in every GenerateDataKey request.

Type: Integer

Valid Range: Minimum value of 1. Maximum value of 1024.

Required: No

Response Syntax

{ "CiphertextBlob": blob, "KeyId": "string", "Plaintext": blob }

Response Elements

If the action is successful, the service sends back an HTTP 200 response.

The following data is returned in JSON format by the service.

CiphertextBlob

The encrypted copy of the data key. When you use the HTTP API or the AWS CLI, the value is Base64-encoded. Otherwise, it is not encoded.

Type: Base64-encoded binary data object

Length Constraints: Minimum length of 1. Maximum length of 6144.

KeyId

The identifier of the CMK that encrypted the data key.

Type: String

Length Constraints: Minimum length of 1. Maximum length of 2048.

Plaintext

The plaintext data key. When you use the HTTP API or the AWS CLI, the value is Base64-encoded. Otherwise, it is not encoded. Use this data key to encrypt your data outside of KMS. Then, remove it from memory as soon as possible.

Type: Base64-encoded binary data object

Length Constraints: Minimum length of 1. Maximum length of 4096.

Errors

For information about the errors that are common to all actions, see Common Errors.

DependencyTimeoutException

The system timed out while trying to fulfill the request. The request can be retried.

HTTP Status Code: 500

DisabledException

The request was rejected because the specified CMK is not enabled.

HTTP Status Code: 400

InvalidGrantTokenException

The request was rejected because the specified grant token is not valid.

HTTP Status Code: 400

InvalidKeyUsageException

The request was rejected because the specified KeySpec value is not valid.

HTTP Status Code: 400

KeyUnavailableException

The request was rejected because the specified CMK was not available. The request can be retried.

HTTP Status Code: 500

KMSInternalException

The request was rejected because an internal exception occurred. The request can be retried.

HTTP Status Code: 500

KMSInvalidStateException

The request was rejected because the state of the specified resource is not valid for this request.

For more information about how key state affects the use of a CMK, see How Key State Affects Use of a Customer Master Key in the AWS Key Management Service Developer Guide.

HTTP Status Code: 400

NotFoundException

The request was rejected because the specified entity or resource could not be found.

HTTP Status Code: 400

Examples

The following examples are formatted for legibility.

Example Request

POST / HTTP/1.1 Host: kms.us-east-2.amazonaws.com Content-Length: 50 X-Amz-Target: TrentService.GenerateDataKey X-Amz-Date: 20161112T000940Z Content-Type: application/x-amz-json-1.1 Authorization: AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\ Credential=AKIAI44QH8DHBEXAMPLE/20161112/us-east-2/kms/aws4_request,\ SignedHeaders=content-type;host;x-amz-date;x-amz-target,\ Signature=815ac4ccbb5c53b8ca015f979704c7953bb0068bf53f4e0b7c6886ed5b0a8fe4 { "KeyId": "alias/ExampleAlias", "KeySpec": "AES_256" }

Example Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Server: Server Date: Sat, 12 Nov 2016 00:09:40 GMT Content-Type: application/x-amz-json-1.1 Content-Length: 390 Connection: keep-alive x-amzn-RequestId: 4e6fc242-a86c-11e6-aff0-8333261e2fbd { "CiphertextBlob": "AQEDAHjRYf5WytIc0C857tFSnBaPn2F8DgfmThbJlGfR8P3WlwAAAH4wfAYJKoZIhvcNAQcGoG8wbQIBADBoBgkqhkiG9w0BBwEwHgYJYIZIAWUDBAEuMBEEDEFogLqPWZconQhwHAIBEIA7d9AC7GeJJM34njQvg4Wf1d5sw0NIo1MrBqZa+YdhV8MrkBQPeac0ReRVNDt9qleAt+SHgIRF8P0H+7U=", "KeyId": "arn:aws:kms:us-east-2:111122223333:key/1234abcd-12ab-34cd-56ef-1234567890ab", "Plaintext": "VdzKNHGzUAzJeRBVY+uUmofUGGiDzyB3+i9fVkh3piw=" }

See Also

For more information about using this API in one of the language-specific AWS SDKs, see the following: