从最新快照还原根卷 - Amazon Systems Manager
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从最新快照还原根卷

根卷上的操作系统可能会出于各种原因而受损。例如,在执行修补操作后,实例可能会因内核或注册表损坏而无法成功启动。自动执行常见故障排除任务(例如,从修补操作前拍摄的最新快照还原根卷)可以减少停机时间并加快故障排除工作。Amazon Systems Manager自动化操作可帮助您做到这一点。自动化是 Amazon Systems Manager 的一项功能。

以下示例 Amazon Systems Manager 运行手册执行以下操作:

  • 使用 aws:executeAwsApi 自动化操作从实例的根卷检索详细信息。

  • 使用 aws:executeScript 自动化操作检索根卷的最新快照。

  • 如果找到了根卷的快照,则使用 aws:branch 自动化操作继续执行自动化。

YAML
--- description: Custom Automation Troubleshooting Sample schemaVersion: '0.3' assumeRole: "{{ AutomationAssumeRole }}" parameters: AutomationAssumeRole: type: String description: "(Required) The ARN of the role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to use this runbook." default: '' InstanceId: type: String description: "(Required) The Instance Id whose root EBS volume you want to restore the latest Snapshot." default: '' mainSteps: - name: getInstanceDetails action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeInstances InstanceIds: - "{{ InstanceId }}" outputs: - Name: availabilityZone Selector: "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].Placement.AvailabilityZone" Type: String - Name: rootDeviceName Selector: "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].RootDeviceName" Type: String nextStep: getRootVolumeId - name: getRootVolumeId action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeVolumes Filters: - Name: attachment.device Values: ["{{ getInstanceDetails.rootDeviceName }}"] - Name: attachment.instance-id Values: ["{{ InstanceId }}"] outputs: - Name: rootVolumeId Selector: "$.Volumes[0].VolumeId" Type: String nextStep: getSnapshotsByStartTime - name: getSnapshotsByStartTime action: aws:executeScript timeoutSeconds: 45 onFailure: Abort inputs: Runtime: python3.6 Handler: getSnapshotsByStartTime InputPayload: rootVolumeId : "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" Script: |- def getSnapshotsByStartTime(events,context): import boto3 #Initialize client ec2 = boto3.client('ec2') rootVolumeId = events['rootVolumeId'] snapshotsQuery = ec2.describe_snapshots( Filters=[ { "Name": "volume-id", "Values": [rootVolumeId] } ] ) if not snapshotsQuery['Snapshots']: noSnapshotFoundString = "NoSnapshotFound" return { 'noSnapshotFound' : noSnapshotFoundString } else: jsonSnapshots = snapshotsQuery['Snapshots'] sortedSnapshots = sorted(jsonSnapshots, key=lambda k: k['StartTime'], reverse=True) latestSortedSnapshotId = sortedSnapshots[0]['SnapshotId'] return { 'latestSnapshotId' : latestSortedSnapshotId } outputs: - Name: Payload Selector: $.Payload Type: StringMap - Name: latestSnapshotId Selector: $.Payload.latestSnapshotId Type: String - Name: noSnapshotFound Selector: $.Payload.noSnapshotFound Type: String nextStep: branchFromResults - name: branchFromResults action: aws:branch onFailure: Abort inputs: Choices: - NextStep: createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot Not: Variable: "{{ getSnapshotsByStartTime.noSnapshotFound }}" StringEquals: "NoSnapshotFound" isEnd: true - name: createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: CreateVolume AvailabilityZone: "{{ getInstanceDetails.availabilityZone }}" SnapshotId: "{{ getSnapshotsByStartTime.latestSnapshotId }}" outputs: - Name: newRootVolumeId Selector: "$.VolumeId" Type: String nextStep: stopInstance - name: stopInstance action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: StopInstances InstanceIds: - "{{ InstanceId }}" nextStep: verifyVolumeAvailability - name: verifyVolumeAvailability action: aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty timeoutSeconds: 120 inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeVolumes VolumeIds: - "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" PropertySelector: "$.Volumes[0].State" DesiredValues: - "available" nextStep: verifyInstanceStopped - name: verifyInstanceStopped action: aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty timeoutSeconds: 120 inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeInstances InstanceIds: - "{{ InstanceId }}" PropertySelector: "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].State.Name" DesiredValues: - "stopped" nextStep: detachRootVolume - name: detachRootVolume action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DetachVolume VolumeId: "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" nextStep: verifyRootVolumeDetached - name: verifyRootVolumeDetached action: aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty timeoutSeconds: 30 inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeVolumes VolumeIds: - "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" PropertySelector: "$.Volumes[0].State" DesiredValues: - "available" nextStep: attachNewRootVolume - name: attachNewRootVolume action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: AttachVolume Device: "{{ getInstanceDetails.rootDeviceName }}" InstanceId: "{{ InstanceId }}" VolumeId: "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" nextStep: verifyNewRootVolumeAttached - name: verifyNewRootVolumeAttached action: aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty timeoutSeconds: 30 inputs: Service: ec2 Api: DescribeVolumes VolumeIds: - "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" PropertySelector: "$.Volumes[0].Attachments[0].State" DesiredValues: - "attached" nextStep: startInstance - name: startInstance action: aws:executeAwsApi onFailure: Abort inputs: Service: ec2 Api: StartInstances InstanceIds: - "{{ InstanceId }}"
JSON
{ "description": "Custom Automation Troubleshooting Sample", "schemaVersion": "0.3", "assumeRole": "{{ AutomationAssumeRole }}", "parameters": { "AutomationAssumeRole": { "type": "String", "description": "(Required) The ARN of the role that allows Automation to perform the actions on your behalf. If no role is specified, Systems Manager Automation uses your IAM permissions to run this runbook.", "default": "" }, "InstanceId": { "type": "String", "description": "(Required) The Instance Id whose root EBS volume you want to restore the latest Snapshot.", "default": "" } }, "mainSteps": [ { "name": "getInstanceDetails", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeInstances", "InstanceIds": [ "{{ InstanceId }}" ] }, "outputs": [ { "Name": "availabilityZone", "Selector": "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].Placement.AvailabilityZone", "Type": "String" }, { "Name": "rootDeviceName", "Selector": "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].RootDeviceName", "Type": "String" } ], "nextStep": "getRootVolumeId" }, { "name": "getRootVolumeId", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeVolumes", "Filters": [ { "Name": "attachment.device", "Values": [ "{{ getInstanceDetails.rootDeviceName }}" ] }, { "Name": "attachment.instance-id", "Values": [ "{{ InstanceId }}" ] } ] }, "outputs": [ { "Name": "rootVolumeId", "Selector": "$.Volumes[0].VolumeId", "Type": "String" } ], "nextStep": "getSnapshotsByStartTime" }, { "name": "getSnapshotsByStartTime", "action": "aws:executeScript", "timeoutSeconds": 45, "onFailure": "Continue", "inputs": { "Runtime": "python3.6", "Handler": "getSnapshotsByStartTime", "InputPayload": { "rootVolumeId": "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" }, "Attachment": "getSnapshotsByStartTime.py" }, "outputs": [ { "Name": "Payload", "Selector": "$.Payload", "Type": "StringMap" }, { "Name": "latestSnapshotId", "Selector": "$.Payload.latestSnapshotId", "Type": "String" }, { "Name": "noSnapshotFound", "Selector": "$.Payload.noSnapshotFound", "Type": "String" } ], "nextStep": "branchFromResults" }, { "name": "branchFromResults", "action": "aws:branch", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Choices": [ { "NextStep": "createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot", "Not": { "Variable": "{{ getSnapshotsByStartTime.noSnapshotFound }}", "StringEquals": "NoSnapshotFound" } } ] }, "isEnd": true }, { "name": "createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "CreateVolume", "AvailabilityZone": "{{ getInstanceDetails.availabilityZone }}", "SnapshotId": "{{ getSnapshotsByStartTime.latestSnapshotId }}" }, "outputs": [ { "Name": "newRootVolumeId", "Selector": "$.VolumeId", "Type": "String" } ], "nextStep": "stopInstance" }, { "name": "stopInstance", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "StopInstances", "InstanceIds": [ "{{ InstanceId }}" ] }, "nextStep": "verifyVolumeAvailability" }, { "name": "verifyVolumeAvailability", "action": "aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty", "timeoutSeconds": 120, "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeVolumes", "VolumeIds": [ "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" ], "PropertySelector": "$.Volumes[0].State", "DesiredValues": [ "available" ] }, "nextStep": "verifyInstanceStopped" }, { "name": "verifyInstanceStopped", "action": "aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty", "timeoutSeconds": 120, "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeInstances", "InstanceIds": [ "{{ InstanceId }}" ], "PropertySelector": "$.Reservations[0].Instances[0].State.Name", "DesiredValues": [ "stopped" ] }, "nextStep": "detachRootVolume" }, { "name": "detachRootVolume", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DetachVolume", "VolumeId": "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" }, "nextStep": "verifyRootVolumeDetached" }, { "name": "verifyRootVolumeDetached", "action": "aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty", "timeoutSeconds": 30, "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeVolumes", "VolumeIds": [ "{{ getRootVolumeId.rootVolumeId }}" ], "PropertySelector": "$.Volumes[0].State", "DesiredValues": [ "available" ] }, "nextStep": "attachNewRootVolume" }, { "name": "attachNewRootVolume", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "AttachVolume", "Device": "{{ getInstanceDetails.rootDeviceName }}", "InstanceId": "{{ InstanceId }}", "VolumeId": "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" }, "nextStep": "verifyNewRootVolumeAttached" }, { "name": "verifyNewRootVolumeAttached", "action": "aws:waitForAwsResourceProperty", "timeoutSeconds": 30, "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "DescribeVolumes", "VolumeIds": [ "{{ createNewRootVolumeFromSnapshot.newRootVolumeId }}" ], "PropertySelector": "$.Volumes[0].Attachments[0].State", "DesiredValues": [ "attached" ] }, "nextStep": "startInstance" }, { "name": "startInstance", "action": "aws:executeAwsApi", "onFailure": "Abort", "inputs": { "Service": "ec2", "Api": "StartInstances", "InstanceIds": [ "{{ InstanceId }}" ] } } ], "files": { "getSnapshotsByStartTime.py": { "checksums": { "sha256": "sampleETagValue" } } } }