Troubleshooting Amazon Aurora MySQL database performance - Amazon Aurora
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Troubleshooting Amazon Aurora MySQL database performance

This topic focuses on some common Aurora MySQL DB performance issues, and how to troubleshoot or collect information to remediate these issues quickly. We divide database performance into two categories:

  • Server performance – The entire database server runs slower.

  • Query performance – One or more queries take longer to run.

Amazon monitoring options

We recommend that you use the following Amazon monitoring options to help with troubleshooting:

  • Amazon CloudWatch – Amazon CloudWatch monitors your Amazon resources and the applications you run on Amazon in real time. You can use CloudWatch to collect and track metrics, which are variables you can measure for your resources and applications. For more information, see What is Amazon CloudWatch?.

    You can view all of the system metrics and process information for your DB instances on the Amazon Web Services Management Console. You can configure your Aurora MySQL DB cluster to publish general, slow, audit, and error log data to a log group in Amazon CloudWatch Logs. This allows you to view trends, maintain logs if a host is impacted, and create a baseline for "normal" performance to easily identify anomalies or changes. For more information, see Publishing Amazon Aurora MySQL logs to Amazon CloudWatch Logs.

  • Enhanced Monitoring – To enable additional Amazon CloudWatch metrics for an Aurora MySQL database, turn on Enhanced Monitoring. When you create or modify an Aurora DB cluster, select Enable Enhanced Monitoring. This allows Aurora to publish performance metrics to CloudWatch. Some of the key metrics available include CPU usage, database connections, storage usage, and query latency. These can help identify performance bottlenecks.

    The amount of information transferred for a DB instance is directly proportional to the defined granularity for Enhanced Monitoring. A smaller monitoring interval results in more frequent reporting of OS metrics and increases your monitoring cost. To manage costs, set different granularities for different instances in your Amazon Web Services accounts. The default granularity at creation of an instance is 60 seconds. For more information, see Cost of Enhanced Monitoring.

  • Performance Insights – You can view all of the database call metrics. This includes DB locks, waits, and the number of rows processed, all of which you can use for troubleshooting. When you create or modify an Aurora DB cluster, select Turn on Performance Insights. By default, Performance Insights has a 7-day data retention period, but can be customized to analyze longer-term performance trends. For longer than 7-day retention, you need to upgrade to the paid tier. For more information, see Performance Insights pricing. You can set the data retention period for each Aurora DB instance separately. For more information, see Monitoring DB load with Performance Insights on Amazon Aurora.

Most common reasons for Aurora MySQL database performance issues

You can use the following steps to troubleshoot performance issues in your Aurora MySQL database. We list these steps in the logical order of investigation, but they're not intended to be linear. One discovery could jump across steps, which allow for a series of investigative paths.

  1. Workload – Understand your database workload.

  2. Logging – Review all of the database logs.

  3. Query performance – Examine your query execution plans to see if they've changed. Code changes can cause plans to change.