Replicating - Amazon Aurora
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Replicating

You can call the following stored procedures while connected to the primary instance in an Aurora MySQL cluster. These procedures control how transactions are replicated from an external database into Aurora MySQL, or from Aurora MySQL to an external database. To learn how to use replication based on global transaction identifiers (GTIDs) with Aurora MySQL, see Using GTID-based replication for Amazon Aurora MySQL.

mysql.rds_assign_gtids_to_anonymous_transactions (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Configures the ASSIGN_GTIDS_TO_ANONYMOUS_TRANSACTIONS option of the CHANGE REPLICATION SOURCE TO statement. It makes the replication channel assign a GTID to replicated transactions that don't have one. That way, you can perform binary log replication from a source that doesn't use GTID-based replication to a replica that does. For more information, see CHANGE REPLICATION SOURCE TO Statement and Replication From a Source Without GTIDs to a Replica With GTIDs in the MySQL Reference Manual.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_assign_gtids_to_anonymous_transactions(gtid_option);

Parameters

gtid_option

String value. The allowed values are OFF, LOCAL, or a specified UUID.

Usage notes

This procedure has the same effect as issuing the statement CHANGE REPLICATION SOURCE TO ASSIGN_GTIDS_TO_ANONYMOUS_TRANSACTIONS = gtid_option in community MySQL.

GTID must be turned to ON for gtid_option to be set to LOCAL or a specific UUID.

The default is OFF, meaning that the feature isn't used.

LOCAL assigns a GTID including the replica's own UUID (the server_uuid setting).

Passing a parameter that is a UUID assigns a GTID that includes the specified UUID, such as the server_uuid setting for the replication source server.

Examples

To turn off this feature:

mysql> call mysql.rds_assign_gtids_to_anonymous_transactions('OFF'); +-------------------------------------------------------------+ | Message | +-------------------------------------------------------------+ | ASSIGN_GTIDS_TO_ANONYMOUS_TRANSACTIONS has been set to: OFF | +-------------------------------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.07 sec)

To use the replica's own UUID:

mysql> call mysql.rds_assign_gtids_to_anonymous_transactions('LOCAL'); +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | Message | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ | ASSIGN_GTIDS_TO_ANONYMOUS_TRANSACTIONS has been set to: LOCAL | +---------------------------------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.07 sec)

To use a specified UUID:

mysql> call mysql.rds_assign_gtids_to_anonymous_transactions('317a4760-f3dd-3b74-8e45-0615ed29de0e'); +----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Message | +----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | ASSIGN_GTIDS_TO_ANONYMOUS_TRANSACTIONS has been set to: 317a4760-f3dd-3b74-8e45-0615ed29de0e | +----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ 1 row in set (0.07 sec)

mysql.rds_disable_session_binlog (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Turns off binary logging for the current session by setting the sql_log_bin variable to OFF.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_disable_session_binlog;

Parameters

None

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

For Aurora, this procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2.12 and higher MySQL 5.7–compatible versions.

Note

In Aurora MySQL version 3, you can use the following command to disable binary logging for the current session if you have the SESSION_VARIABLES_ADMIN privilege:

SET SESSION sql_log_bin = OFF;

mysql.rds_enable_session_binlog (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Turns on binary logging for the current session by setting the sql_log_bin variable to ON.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_enable_session_binlog;

Parameters

None

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

For Aurora, this procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2.12 and higher MySQL 5.7–compatible versions.

Note

In Aurora MySQL version 3, you can use the following command to enable binary logging for the current session if you have the SESSION_VARIABLES_ADMIN privilege:

SET SESSION sql_log_bin = ON;

mysql.rds_gtid_purged (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Sets the global value of the system variable gtid_purged to a given global transaction identifier (GTID) set. The gtid_purged system variable is a GTID set that consists of the GTIDs of all transactions that have been committed on the server, but don't exist in any binary log file on the server.

To allow compatibility with MySQL 8.0, there are two ways to set the value of gtid_purged:

  • Replace the value of gtid_purged with your specified GTID set.

  • Append your specified GTID set to the GTID set that gtid_purged already contains.

Syntax

To replace the value of gtid_purged with your specified GTID set:

CALL mysql.rds_gtid_purged (gtid_set);

To append the value of gtid_purged to your specified GTID set:

CALL mysql.rds_gtid_purged (+gtid_set);

Parameters

gtid_set

The value of gtid_set must be a superset of the current value of gtid_purged, and can't intersect with gtid_subtract(gtid_executed,gtid_purged). That is, the new GTID set must include any GTIDs that were already in gtid_purged, and can't include any GTIDs in gtid_executed that haven't yet been purged. The gtid_set parameter also can't include any GTIDs that are in the global gtid_owned set, the GTIDs for transactions that are currently being processed on the server.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_gtid_purged procedure.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 3.04 and higher.

Examples

The following example assigns the GTID 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23 to the gtid_purged global variable.

call mysql.rds_gtid_purged('3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23');

mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material

Imports the certificate authority certificate, client certificate, and client key into an Aurora MySQL DB cluster. The information is required for SSL communication and encrypted replication.

Note

Currently, this procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2: 2.09.2, 2.10.0, 2.10.1, and 2.11.0; and version 3: 3.01.1 and higher.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material ( ssl_material );

Parameters

ssl_material

JSON payload that contains the contents of the following .pem format files for a MySQL client:

  • "ssl_ca":"Certificate authority certificate"

  • "ssl_cert":"Client certificate"

  • "ssl_key":"Client key"

Usage notes

Prepare for encrypted replication before you run this procedure:

  • If you don't have SSL enabled on the external MySQL source database instance and don't have a client key and client certificate prepared, enable SSL on the MySQL database server and generate the required client key and client certificate.

  • If SSL is enabled on the external source database instance, supply a client key and certificate for the Aurora MySQL DB cluster. If you don't have these, generate a new key and certificate for the Aurora MySQL DB cluster. To sign the client certificate, you must have the certificate authority key you used to configure SSL on the external MySQL source database instance.

For more information, see Creating SSL certificates and keys using openssl in the MySQL documentation.

Important

After you prepare for encrypted replication, use an SSL connection to run this procedure. The client key must not be transferred across an insecure connection.

This procedure imports SSL information from an external MySQL database into an Aurora MySQL DB cluster. The SSL information is in .pem format files that contain the SSL information for the Aurora MySQL DB cluster. During encrypted replication, the Aurora MySQL DB cluster acts a client to the MySQL database server. The certificates and keys for the Aurora MySQL client are in files in .pem format.

You can copy the information from these files into the ssl_material parameter in the correct JSON payload. To support encrypted replication, import this SSL information into the Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

The JSON payload must be in the following format.

'{"ssl_ca":"-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- ssl_ca_pem_body_code -----END CERTIFICATE-----\n","ssl_cert":"-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- ssl_cert_pem_body_code -----END CERTIFICATE-----\n","ssl_key":"-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- ssl_key_pem_body_code -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----\n"}'

Examples

The following example imports SSL information into an Aurora MySQL. In .pem format files, the body code typically is longer than the body code shown in the example.

call mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material( '{"ssl_ca":"-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQClKsfkNkuSevGj3eYhCe53pcjqP3maAhDFcvBS7O6V hz2ItxCih+PnDSUaw+WNQn/mZphTk/a/gU8jEzoOWbkM4yxyb/wB96xbiFveSFJuOp/d6RJhJOI0iBXr lsLnBItntckiJ7FbtxJMXLvvwJryDUilBMTjYtwB+QhYXUMOzce5Pjz5/i8SeJtjnV3iAoG/cQk+0FzZ qaeJAAHco+CY/5WrUBkrHmFJr6HcXkvJdWPkYQS3xqC0+FmUZofz221CBt5IMucxXPkX4rWi+z7wB3Rb BQoQzd8v7yeb7OzlPnWOyN0qFU0XA246RA8QFYiCNYwI3f05p6KLxEXAMPLE -----END CERTIFICATE-----\n","ssl_cert":"-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQClKsfkNkuSevGj3eYhCe53pcjqP3maAhDFcvBS7O6V hz2ItxCih+PnDSUaw+WNQn/mZphTk/a/gU8jEzoOWbkM4yxyb/wB96xbiFveSFJuOp/d6RJhJOI0iBXr lsLnBItntckiJ7FbtxJMXLvvwJryDUilBMTjYtwB+QhYXUMOzce5Pjz5/i8SeJtjnV3iAoG/cQk+0FzZ qaeJAAHco+CY/5WrUBkrHmFJr6HcXkvJdWPkYQS3xqC0+FmUZofz221CBt5IMucxXPkX4rWi+z7wB3Rb BQoQzd8v7yeb7OzlPnWOyN0qFU0XA246RA8QFYiCNYwI3f05p6KLxEXAMPLE -----END CERTIFICATE-----\n","ssl_key":"-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY----- AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQClKsfkNkuSevGj3eYhCe53pcjqP3maAhDFcvBS7O6V hz2ItxCih+PnDSUaw+WNQn/mZphTk/a/gU8jEzoOWbkM4yxyb/wB96xbiFveSFJuOp/d6RJhJOI0iBXr lsLnBItntckiJ7FbtxJMXLvvwJryDUilBMTjYtwB+QhYXUMOzce5Pjz5/i8SeJtjnV3iAoG/cQk+0FzZ qaeJAAHco+CY/5WrUBkrHmFJr6HcXkvJdWPkYQS3xqC0+FmUZofz221CBt5IMucxXPkX4rWi+z7wB3Rb BQoQzd8v7yeb7OzlPnWOyN0qFU0XA246RA8QFYiCNYwI3f05p6KLxEXAMPLE -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----\n"}');

mysql.rds_next_master_log (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Changes the source database instance log position to the start of the next binary log on the source database instance. Use this procedure only if you are receiving replication I/O error 1236 on a read replica.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_next_master_log( curr_master_log );

Parameters

curr_master_log

The index of the current master log file. For example, if the current file is named mysql-bin-changelog.012345, then the index is 12345. To determine the current master log file name, run the SHOW REPLICA STATUS command and view the Master_Log_File field.

Note

Previous versions of MySQL used SHOW SLAVE STATUS instead of SHOW REPLICA STATUS. If you are using a MySQL version before 8.0.23, then use SHOW SLAVE STATUS.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_next_master_log procedure.

Warning

Call mysql.rds_next_master_log only if replication fails after a failover of a Multi-AZ DB instance that is the replication source, and the Last_IO_Errno field of SHOW REPLICA STATUS reports I/O error 1236.

Calling mysql.rds_next_master_log can result in data loss in the read replica if transactions in the source instance were not written to the binary log on disk before the failover event occurred.

Examples

Assume replication fails on an Aurora MySQL read replica. Running SHOW REPLICA STATUS\G on the read replica returns the following result:

*************************** 1. row *************************** Replica_IO_State: Source_Host: myhost.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.rr-rrrr-1.rds.amazonaws.com Source_User: MasterUser Source_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 10 Source_Log_File: mysql-bin-changelog.012345 Read_Source_Log_Pos: 1219393 Relay_Log_File: relaylog.012340 Relay_Log_Pos: 30223388 Relay_Source_Log_File: mysql-bin-changelog.012345 Replica_IO_Running: No Replica_SQL_Running: Yes Replicate_Do_DB: Replicate_Ignore_DB: Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: Last_Errno: 0 Last_Error: Skip_Counter: 0 Exec_Source_Log_Pos: 30223232 Relay_Log_Space: 5248928866 Until_Condition: None Until_Log_File: Until_Log_Pos: 0 Source_SSL_Allowed: No Source_SSL_CA_File: Source_SSL_CA_Path: Source_SSL_Cert: Source_SSL_Cipher: Source_SSL_Key: Seconds_Behind_Master: NULL Source_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No Last_IO_Errno: 1236 Last_IO_Error: Got fatal error 1236 from master when reading data from binary log: 'Client requested master to start replication from impossible position; the first event 'mysql-bin-changelog.013406' at 1219393, the last event read from '/rdsdbdata/log/binlog/mysql-bin-changelog.012345' at 4, the last byte read from '/rdsdbdata/log/binlog/mysql-bin-changelog.012345' at 4.' Last_SQL_Errno: 0 Last_SQL_Error: Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: Source_Server_Id: 67285976

The Last_IO_Errno field shows that the instance is receiving I/O error 1236. The Master_Log_File field shows that the file name is mysql-bin-changelog.012345, which means that the log file index is 12345. To resolve the error, you can call mysql.rds_next_master_log with the following parameter:

CALL mysql.rds_next_master_log(12345);
Note

Previous versions of MySQL used SHOW SLAVE STATUS instead of SHOW REPLICA STATUS. If you are using a MySQL version before 8.0.23, then use SHOW SLAVE STATUS.

mysql.rds_next_source_log (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Changes the source database instance log position to the start of the next binary log on the source database instance. Use this procedure only if you are receiving replication I/O error 1236 on a read replica.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_next_source_log( curr_source_log );

Parameters

curr_source_log

The index of the current source log file. For example, if the current file is named mysql-bin-changelog.012345, then the index is 12345. To determine the current source log file name, run the SHOW REPLICA STATUS command and view the Source_Log_File field.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_next_source_log procedure.

Warning

Call mysql.rds_next_source_log only if replication fails after a failover of a Multi-AZ DB instance that is the replication source, and the Last_IO_Errno field of SHOW REPLICA STATUS reports I/O error 1236.

Calling mysql.rds_next_source_log can result in data loss in the read replica if transactions in the source instance were not written to the binary log on disk before the failover event occurred.

Examples

Assume replication fails on an Aurora MySQL read replica. Running SHOW REPLICA STATUS\G on the read replica returns the following result:

*************************** 1. row *************************** Replica_IO_State: Source_Host: myhost.XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX.rr-rrrr-1.rds.amazonaws.com Source_User: MasterUser Source_Port: 3306 Connect_Retry: 10 Source_Log_File: mysql-bin-changelog.012345 Read_Source_Log_Pos: 1219393 Relay_Log_File: relaylog.012340 Relay_Log_Pos: 30223388 Relay_Source_Log_File: mysql-bin-changelog.012345 Replica_IO_Running: No Replica_SQL_Running: Yes Replicate_Do_DB: Replicate_Ignore_DB: Replicate_Do_Table: Replicate_Ignore_Table: Replicate_Wild_Do_Table: Replicate_Wild_Ignore_Table: Last_Errno: 0 Last_Error: Skip_Counter: 0 Exec_Source_Log_Pos: 30223232 Relay_Log_Space: 5248928866 Until_Condition: None Until_Log_File: Until_Log_Pos: 0 Source_SSL_Allowed: No Source_SSL_CA_File: Source_SSL_CA_Path: Source_SSL_Cert: Source_SSL_Cipher: Source_SSL_Key: Seconds_Behind_Source: NULL Source_SSL_Verify_Server_Cert: No Last_IO_Errno: 1236 Last_IO_Error: Got fatal error 1236 from source when reading data from binary log: 'Client requested source to start replication from impossible position; the first event 'mysql-bin-changelog.013406' at 1219393, the last event read from '/rdsdbdata/log/binlog/mysql-bin-changelog.012345' at 4, the last byte read from '/rdsdbdata/log/binlog/mysql-bin-changelog.012345' at 4.' Last_SQL_Errno: 0 Last_SQL_Error: Replicate_Ignore_Server_Ids: Source_Server_Id: 67285976

The Last_IO_Errno field shows that the instance is receiving I/O error 1236. The Source_Log_File field shows that the file name is mysql-bin-changelog.012345, which means that the log file index is 12345. To resolve the error, you can call mysql.rds_next_source_log with the following parameter:

CALL mysql.rds_next_source_log(12345);

mysql.rds_remove_binlog_ssl_material

Removes the certificate authority certificate, client certificate, and client key for SSL communication and encrypted replication. This information is imported by using mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_remove_binlog_ssl_material;

mysql.rds_reset_external_master (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Reconfigures an Aurora MySQL DB instance to no longer be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

Important

To run this procedure, autocommit must be enabled. To enable it, set the autocommit parameter to 1. For information about modifying parameters, see Modifying parameters in a DB parameter group.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_reset_external_master;

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_reset_external_master procedure. This procedure must be run on the MySQL DB instance to be removed as a read replica of a MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS.

Note

We offer these stored procedures primarily to enable replication with MySQL instances running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you use Aurora Replicas to manage replication within an Aurora MySQL DB cluster when possible. For information about managing replication in Aurora MySQL DB clusters, see Using Aurora Replicas.

For more information about using replication to import data from an instance of MySQL running external to Aurora MySQL, see Replication between Aurora and MySQL or between Aurora and another Aurora DB cluster (binary log replication).

mysql.rds_reset_external_source (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Reconfigures an Aurora MySQL DB instance to no longer be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

Important

To run this procedure, autocommit must be enabled. To enable it, set the autocommit parameter to 1. For information about modifying parameters, see Modifying parameters in a DB parameter group.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_reset_external_source;

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_reset_external_source procedure. This procedure must be run on the MySQL DB instance to be removed as a read replica of a MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS.

Note

We offer these stored procedures primarily to enable replication with MySQL instances running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you use Aurora Replicas to manage replication within an Aurora MySQL DB cluster when possible. For information about managing replication in Aurora MySQL DB clusters, see Using Aurora Replicas.

mysql.rds_set_external_master (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Configures an Aurora MySQL DB instance to be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

The mysql.rds_set_external_master procedure is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. Use mysql.rds_set_external_source instead.

Important

To run this procedure, autocommit must be enabled. To enable it, set the autocommit parameter to 1. For information about modifying parameters, see Modifying parameters in a DB parameter group.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_external_master ( host_name , host_port , replication_user_name , replication_user_password , mysql_binary_log_file_name , mysql_binary_log_file_location , ssl_encryption );

Parameters

host_name

The host name or IP address of the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS to become the source database instance.

host_port

The port used by the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS to be configured as the source database instance. If your network configuration includes Secure Shell (SSH) port replication that converts the port number, specify the port number that is exposed by SSH.

replication_user_name

The ID of a user with REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you provide an account that is used solely for replication with the external instance.

replication_user_password

The password of the user ID specified in replication_user_name.

mysql_binary_log_file_name

The name of the binary log on the source database instance that contains the replication information.

mysql_binary_log_file_location

The location in the mysql_binary_log_file_name binary log at which replication starts reading the replication information.

You can determine the binlog file name and location by running SHOW MASTER STATUS on the source database instance.

ssl_encryption

A value that specifies whether Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption is used on the replication connection. 1 specifies to use SSL encryption, 0 specifies to not use encryption. The default is 0.

Note

The MASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT option isn't supported. This option is set to 0, which means that the connection is encrypted, but the certificates aren't verified.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_set_external_master procedure. This procedure must be run on the MySQL DB instance to be configured as the read replica of a MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS.

Before you run mysql.rds_set_external_master, you must configure the instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS to be a source database instance. To connect to the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS, you must specify replication_user_name and replication_user_password values that indicate a replication user that has REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the external instance of MySQL.

To configure an external instance of MySQL as a source database instance
  1. Using the MySQL client of your choice, connect to the external instance of MySQL and create a user account to be used for replication. The following is an example.

    MySQL 5.7

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    MySQL 8.0

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
    Note

    Specify a password other than the prompt shown here as a security best practice.

  2. On the external instance of MySQL, grant REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges to your replication user. The following example grants REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges on all databases for the 'repl_user' user for your domain.

    MySQL 5.7

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    MySQL 8.0

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com';

To use encrypted replication, configure source database instance to use SSL connections. Also, import the certificate authority certificate, client certificate, and client key into the DB instance or DB cluster using the mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material procedure.

Note

We offer these stored procedures primarily to enable replication with MySQL instances running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you use Aurora Replicas to manage replication within an Aurora MySQL DB cluster when possible. For information about managing replication in Aurora MySQL DB clusters, see Using Aurora Replicas.

After calling mysql.rds_set_external_master to configure an Amazon RDS DB instance as a read replica, you can call mysql.rds_start_replication on the read replica to start the replication process. You can call mysql.rds_reset_external_master (Aurora MySQL version 2) to remove the read replica configuration.

When mysql.rds_set_external_master is called, Amazon RDS records the time, user, and an action of set master in the mysql.rds_history and mysql.rds_replication_status tables.

Examples

When run on a MySQL DB instance, the following example configures the DB instance to be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

call mysql.rds_set_external_master( 'Externaldb.some.com', 3306, 'repl_user', 'password', 'mysql-bin-changelog.0777', 120, 0);

mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Configures an Aurora MySQL primary instance to accept incoming replication from an external MySQL instance. This procedure also configures replication based on global transaction identifiers (GTIDs).

This procedure doesn't configure delayed replication, because Aurora MySQL doesn't support delayed replication.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position ( host_name , host_port , replication_user_name , replication_user_password , ssl_encryption );

Parameters

host_name

The host name or IP address of the MySQL instance running external to Aurora to become the replication master.

host_port

The port used by the MySQL instance running external to Aurora to be configured as the replication master. If your network configuration includes Secure Shell (SSH) port replication that converts the port number, specify the port number that is exposed by SSH.

replication_user_name

The ID of a user with REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the MySQL instance running external to Aurora. We recommend that you provide an account that is used solely for replication with the external instance.

replication_user_password

The password of the user ID specified in replication_user_name.

ssl_encryption

This option isn't currently implemented. The default is 0.

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

The master user must run the mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position procedure. The master user runs this procedure on the primary instance of an Aurora MySQL DB cluster that acts as a replication target. This can be the replication target of an external MySQL DB instance or an Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2. For Aurora MySQL version 3, use the procedure mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position (Aurora MySQL version 3) instead.

Before you run mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position, configure the external MySQL DB instance to be a replication master. To connect to the external MySQL instance, specify values for replication_user_name and replication_user_password. These values must indicate a replication user that has REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the external MySQL instance.

To configure an external MySQL instance as a replication master
  1. Using the MySQL client of your choice, connect to the external MySQL instance and create a user account to be used for replication. The following is an example.

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'SomePassW0rd'
  2. On the external MySQL instance, grant REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges to your replication user. The following example grants REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges on all databases for the 'repl_user' user for your domain.

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'SomePassW0rd'

When you call mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position, Amazon RDS records certain information. This information is the time, the user, and an action of "set master" in the mysql.rds_history and mysql.rds_replication_status tables.

To skip a specific GTID-based transaction that is known to cause a problem, you can use the mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid stored procedure. For more information about working with GTID-based replication, see Using GTID-based replication for Amazon Aurora MySQL.

Examples

When run on an Aurora primary instance, the following example configures the Aurora cluster to act as a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Aurora.

call mysql.rds_set_external_master_with_auto_position( 'Externaldb.some.com', 3306, 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com', 'SomePassW0rd');

mysql.rds_set_external_source (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Configures an Aurora MySQL DB instance to be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

Important

To run this procedure, autocommit must be enabled. To enable it, set the autocommit parameter to 1. For information about modifying parameters, see Modifying parameters in a DB parameter group.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_external_source ( host_name , host_port , replication_user_name , replication_user_password , mysql_binary_log_file_name , mysql_binary_log_file_location , ssl_encryption );

Parameters

host_name

The host name or IP address of the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS to become the source database instance.

host_port

The port used by the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS to be configured as the source database instance. If your network configuration includes Secure Shell (SSH) port replication that converts the port number, specify the port number that is exposed by SSH.

replication_user_name

The ID of a user with REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you provide an account that is used solely for replication with the external instance.

replication_user_password

The password of the user ID specified in replication_user_name.

mysql_binary_log_file_name

The name of the binary log on the source database instance that contains the replication information.

mysql_binary_log_file_location

The location in the mysql_binary_log_file_name binary log at which replication starts reading the replication information.

You can determine the binlog file name and location by running SHOW MASTER STATUS on the source database instance.

ssl_encryption

A value that specifies whether Secure Socket Layer (SSL) encryption is used on the replication connection. 1 specifies to use SSL encryption, 0 specifies to not use encryption. The default is 0.

Note

The MASTER_SSL_VERIFY_SERVER_CERT option isn't supported. This option is set to 0, which means that the connection is encrypted, but the certificates aren't verified.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_set_external_source procedure. This procedure must be run on the Aurora MySQL DB instance to be configured as the read replica of a MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS.

Before you run mysql.rds_set_external_source, you must configure the instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS to be a source database instance. To connect to the MySQL instance running external to Amazon RDS, you must specify replication_user_name and replication_user_password values that indicate a replication user that has REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the external instance of MySQL.

To configure an external instance of MySQL as a source database instance
  1. Using the MySQL client of your choice, connect to the external instance of MySQL and create a user account to be used for replication. The following is an example.

    MySQL 5.7

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    MySQL 8.0

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
    Note

    Specify a password other than the prompt shown here as a security best practice.

  2. On the external instance of MySQL, grant REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges to your replication user. The following example grants REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges on all databases for the 'repl_user' user for your domain.

    MySQL 5.7

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    MySQL 8.0

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com';

To use encrypted replication, configure source database instance to use SSL connections. Also, import the certificate authority certificate, client certificate, and client key into the DB instance or DB cluster using the mysql.rds_import_binlog_ssl_material procedure.

Note

We offer these stored procedures primarily to enable replication with MySQL instances running external to Amazon RDS. We recommend that you use Aurora Replicas to manage replication within an Aurora MySQL DB cluster when possible. For information about managing replication in Aurora MySQL DB clusters, see Using Aurora Replicas.

After calling mysql.rds_set_external_source to configure an Aurora MySQL DB instance as a read replica, you can call mysql.rds_start_replication on the read replica to start the replication process. You can call mysql.rds_reset_external_source to remove the read replica configuration.

When mysql.rds_set_external_source is called, Amazon RDS records the time, user, and an action of set master in the mysql.rds_history and mysql.rds_replication_status tables.

Examples

When run on an Aurora MySQL DB instance, the following example configures the DB instance to be a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS.

call mysql.rds_set_external_source( 'Externaldb.some.com', 3306, 'repl_user', 'password', 'mysql-bin-changelog.0777', 120, 0);

mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Configures an Aurora MySQL primary instance to accept incoming replication from an external MySQL instance. This procedure also configures replication based on global transaction identifiers (GTIDs).

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position ( host_name , host_port , replication_user_name , replication_user_password , ssl_encryption );

Parameters

host_name

The host name or IP address of the MySQL instance running external to Aurora to become the replication source.

host_port

The port used by the MySQL instance running external to Aurora to be configured as the replication source. If your network configuration includes Secure Shell (SSH) port replication that converts the port number, specify the port number that is exposed by SSH.

replication_user_name

The ID of a user with REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the MySQL instance running external to Aurora. We recommend that you provide an account that is used solely for replication with the external instance.

replication_user_password

The password of the user ID specified in replication_user_name.

ssl_encryption

This option isn't currently implemented. The default is 0.

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

The administrative user must run the mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position procedure. The administrative user runs this procedure on the primary instance of an Aurora MySQL DB cluster that acts as a replication target. This can be the replication target of an external MySQL DB instance or an Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 3. This procedure doesn't configure delayed replication, because Aurora MySQL doesn't support delayed replication.

Before you run mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position, configure the external MySQL DB instance to be a replication source. To connect to the external MySQL instance, specify values for replication_user_name and replication_user_password. These values must indicate a replication user that has REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE permissions on the external MySQL instance.

To configure an external MySQL instance as a replication source
  1. Using the MySQL client of your choice, connect to the external MySQL instance and create a user account to be used for replication. The following is an example.

    CREATE USER 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'SomePassW0rd'
  2. On the external MySQL instance, grant REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges to your replication user. The following example grants REPLICATION CLIENT and REPLICATION SLAVE privileges on all databases for the 'repl_user' user for your domain.

    GRANT REPLICATION CLIENT, REPLICATION SLAVE ON *.* TO 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com' IDENTIFIED BY 'SomePassW0rd'

When you call mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position, Amazon RDS records certain information. This information is the time, the user, and an action of "set master" in the mysql.rds_history and mysql.rds_replication_status tables.

To skip a specific GTID-based transaction that is known to cause a problem, you can use the mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid/> stored procedure. For more information about working with GTID-based replication, see Using GTID-based replication for Amazon Aurora MySQL.

Examples

When run on an Aurora primary instance, the following example configures the Aurora cluster to act as a read replica of an instance of MySQL running external to Aurora.

call mysql.rds_set_external_source_with_auto_position( 'Externaldb.some.com', 3306, 'repl_user'@'mydomain.com', 'SomePassW0rd');

mysql.rds_set_master_auto_position (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Sets the replication mode to be based on either binary log file positions or on global transaction identifiers (GTIDs).

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_master_auto_position ( auto_position_mode );

Parameters

auto_position_mode

A value that indicates whether to use log file position replication or GTID-based replication:

  • 0 – Use the replication method based on binary log file position. The default is 0.

  • 1 – Use the GTID-based replication method.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_set_master_auto_position procedure.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2.

mysql.rds_set_session_binlog_format (Aurora MySQL version 2)

Sets the binary log format for the current session.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_session_binlog_format(format);

Parameters

format

A value that indicates the binary log format for the current session:

  • STATEMENT – The replication source writes events to the binary log based on SQL statements.

  • ROW – The replication source writes events to the binary log that indicate changes to individual table rows.

  • MIXED – Logging is generally based on SQL statements, but switches to rows under certain conditions. For more information, see Mixed Binary Logging Format in the MySQL documentation.

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

To use this stored procedure, you must have binary logging configured for the current session.

For Aurora, this procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2.12 and higher MySQL 5.7–compatible versions.

mysql.rds_set_source_auto_position (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Sets the replication mode to be based on either binary log file positions or on global transaction identifiers (GTIDs).

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_set_source_auto_position (auto_position_mode);

Parameters

auto_position_mode

A value that indicates whether to use log file position replication or GTID-based replication:

  • 0 – Use the replication method based on binary log file position. The default is 0.

  • 1 – Use the GTID-based replication method.

Usage notes

For an Aurora MySQL DB cluster, you call this stored procedure while connected to the primary instance.

The administrative user must run the mysql.rds_set_source_auto_position procedure.

mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid (Aurora MySQL version 2 and 3)

Skips replication of a transaction with the specified global transaction identifier (GTID) on an Aurora primary instance.

You can use this procedure for disaster recovery when a specific GTID transaction is known to cause a problem. Use this stored procedure to skip the problematic transaction. Examples of problematic transactions include transactions that disable replication, delete important data, or cause the DB instance to become unavailable.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid ( gtid_to_skip );

Parameters

gtid_to_skip

The GTID of the replication transaction to skip.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid procedure.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 2 and 3.

Examples

The following example skips replication of the transaction with the GTID 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23.

call mysql.rds_skip_transaction_with_gtid('3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23');

mysql.rds_skip_repl_error

Skips and deletes a replication error on a MySQL DB read replica.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_skip_repl_error;

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_skip_repl_error procedure on a read replica. For more information about this procedure, see Skipping the current replication error.

To determine if there are errors, run the MySQL SHOW REPLICA STATUS\G command. If a replication error isn't critical, you can run mysql.rds_skip_repl_error to skip the error. If there are multiple errors, mysql.rds_skip_repl_error deletes the first error, then warns that others are present. You can then use SHOW REPLICA STATUS\G to determine the correct course of action for the next error. For information about the values returned, see SHOW REPLICA STATUS statement in the MySQL documentation.

Note

Previous versions of MySQL used SHOW SLAVE STATUS instead of SHOW REPLICA STATUS. If you are using a MySQL version before 8.0.23, then use SHOW SLAVE STATUS.

For more information about addressing replication errors with Aurora MySQL, see Diagnosing and resolving a MySQL read replication failure.

Replication stopped error

When you call the mysql.rds_skip_repl_error procedure, you might receive an error message stating that the replica is down or disabled.

This error message appears if you run the procedure on the primary instance instead of the read replica. You must run this procedure on the read replica for the procedure to work.

This error message might also appear if you run the procedure on the read replica, but replication can't be restarted successfully.

If you need to skip a large number of errors, the replication lag can increase beyond the default retention period for binary log (binlog) files. In this case, you might encounter a fatal error due to binlog files being purged before they have been replayed on the read replica. This purge causes replication to stop, and you can no longer call the mysql.rds_skip_repl_error command to skip replication errors.

You can mitigate this issue by increasing the number of hours that binlog files are retained on your source database instance. After you have increased the binlog retention time, you can restart replication and call the mysql.rds_skip_repl_error command as needed.

To set the binlog retention time, use the mysql.rds_set_configuration procedure and specify a configuration parameter of 'binlog retention hours' along with the number of hours to retain binlog files on the DB cluster. The following example sets the retention period for binlog files to 48 hours.

CALL mysql.rds_set_configuration('binlog retention hours', 48);

mysql.rds_start_replication

Initiates replication from an Aurora MySQL DB cluster.

Note

You can use the mysql.rds_start_replication_until (Aurora MySQL version 3) or mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid (Aurora MySQL version 3) stored procedure to initiate replication from an Aurora MySQL DB instance and stop replication at the specified binary log file location.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_start_replication;

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_start_replication procedure.

To import data from an instance of MySQL external to Amazon RDS, call mysql.rds_start_replication on the read replica to start the replication process after you call mysql.rds_set_external_masteror mysql.rds_set_external_source to build the replication configuration. For more information, see Replication between Aurora and MySQL or between Aurora and another Aurora DB cluster (binary log replication).

To export data to an instance of MySQL external to Amazon RDS, call mysql.rds_start_replication and mysql.rds_stop_replication on the read replica to control some replication actions, such as purging binary logs. For more information, see Replication between Aurora and MySQL or between Aurora and another Aurora DB cluster (binary log replication).

You can also call mysql.rds_start_replication on the read replica to restart any replication process that you previously stopped by calling mysql.rds_stop_replication. For more information, see Replication stopped error.

mysql.rds_start_replication_until (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Initiates replication from an Aurora MySQL DB cluster and stops replication at the specified binary log file location.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_start_replication_until ( replication_log_file , replication_stop_point );

Parameters

replication_log_file

The name of the binary log on the source database instance that contains the replication information.

replication_stop_point

The location in the replication_log_file binary log at which replication will stop.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_start_replication_until procedure.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 3.04 and higher.

The mysql.rds_start_replication_until stored procedure isn't supported for managed replication, which includes the following:

The file name specified for the replication_log_file parameter must match the source database instance binlog file name.

When the replication_stop_point parameter specifies a stop location that is in the past, replication is stopped immediately.

Examples

The following example initiates replication and replicates changes until it reaches location 120 in the mysql-bin-changelog.000777 binary log file.

call mysql.rds_start_replication_until( 'mysql-bin-changelog.000777', 120);

mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid (Aurora MySQL version 3)

Initiates replication from an Aurora MySQL DB cluster and stops replication immediately after the specified global transaction identifier (GTID).

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid(gtid);

Parameters

gtid

The GTID after which replication is to stop.

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid procedure.

This procedure is supported for Aurora MySQL version 3.04 and higher.

The mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid stored procedure isn't supported for managed replication, which includes the following:

When the gtid parameter specifies a transaction that has already been run by the replica, replication is stopped immediately.

Examples

The following example initiates replication and replicates changes until it reaches GTID 3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23.

call mysql.rds_start_replication_until_gtid('3E11FA47-71CA-11E1-9E33-C80AA9429562:23');

mysql.rds_stop_replication

Stops replication from a MySQL DB instance.

Syntax

CALL mysql.rds_stop_replication;

Usage notes

The master user must run the mysql.rds_stop_replication procedure.

If you are configuring replication to import data from an instance of MySQL running external to Amazon RDS, you call mysql.rds_stop_replication on the read replica to stop the replication process after the import has completed. For more information, see Replication between Aurora and MySQL or between Aurora and another Aurora DB cluster (binary log replication).

If you are configuring replication to export data to an instance of MySQL external to Amazon RDS, you call mysql.rds_start_replication and mysql.rds_stop_replication on the read replica to control some replication actions, such as purging binary logs. For more information, see Replication between Aurora and MySQL or between Aurora and another Aurora DB cluster (binary log replication).

The mysql.rds_stop_replication stored procedure isn't supported for managed replication, which includes the following: