CloudTrail userIdentity element - Amazon CloudTrail
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CloudTrail userIdentity element

Amazon Identity and Access Management (IAM) provides different types of identities. The userIdentity element contains details about the type of IAM identity that made the request, and which credentials were used. If temporary credentials were used, the element shows how the credentials were obtained.

Examples

userIdentity with IAM user credentials

The following example shows the userIdentity element of a simple request made with the credentials of the IAM user named Alice.

"userIdentity": { "type": "IAMUser", "principalId": "AIDAJ45Q7YFFAREXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:user/Alice", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "", "userName": "Alice" }

userIdentity with temporary security credentials

The following example shows a userIdentity element for a request made with temporary security credentials obtained by assuming an IAM role. The element contains additional details about the role that was assumed to get credentials.

"userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "AROAIDPPEZS35WEXAMPLE:AssumedRoleSessionName", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::123456789012:assumed-role/RoleToBeAssumed/MySessionName", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "", "sessionContext": { "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "20131102T010628Z" }, "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "AROAIDPPEZS35WEXAMPLE", "arn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/RoleToBeAssumed", "accountId": "123456789012", "userName": "RoleToBeAssumed" } } }

userIdentity for a request made on behalf of an IAM Identity Center user

The following example shows a userIdentity element for a request made on behalf of an IAM Identity Center user.

"userIdentity": { "type": "IdentityCenterUser", "accountId": "123456789012", "onBehalfOf": { "userId": "544894e8-80c1-707f-60e3-3ba6510dfac1", "identityStoreArn": "arn:aws:identitystore::123456789012:identitystore/d-9067642ac7" }, "credentialId": "EXAMPLEVHULjJdTUdPJfofVa1sufHDoj7aYcOYcxFVllWR_Whr1fEXAMPLE" }

Fields

The following fields can appear in a userIdentity element.

type

The type of the identity. The following values are possible:

  • Root – The request was made with your Amazon Web Services account credentials. If the userIdentity type is Root, and you set an alias for your account, the userName field contains your account alias. For more information, see Your Amazon Web Services account ID and its alias.

  • IAMUser – The request was made with the credentials of an IAM user.

  • AssumedRole – The request was made with temporary security credentials that were obtained with a role by making a call to the Amazon Security Token Service (Amazon STS) AssumeRole API. This can include roles for Amazon EC2 and cross-account API access.

  • Role – The request was made with a persistent IAM identity that has specific permissions. The issuer of the role sessions is always the role. For more information about roles, see Roles terms and concepts in the IAM User Guide.

  • FederatedUser – The request was made with temporary security credentials obtained from a call to the Amazon STS GetFederationToken API. The sessionIssuer element indicates if the API was called with root or IAM user credentials.

    For more information about temporary security credentials, see Temporary Security Credentials in the IAM User Guide.

  • Directory – The request was made to a directory service, and the type is unknown. Directory services include the following: Amazon WorkDocs and Amazon QuickSight.

  • AWSAccount – The request was made by another Amazon Web Services account

  • AWSService – The request was made by an Amazon Web Services account that belongs to an Amazon Web Service. For example, Amazon Elastic Beanstalk assumes an IAM role in your account to call other Amazon Web Services on your behalf.

  • IdentityCenterUser – The request was made on behalf of an IAM Identity Center user.

  • Unknown – The request was made with an identity type that CloudTrail can't determine.

Optional: False

AWSAccount and AWSService appear for type in your logs when there is cross-account access using an IAM role that you own.

Example: Cross-account access initiated by another Amazon account
  1. You own an IAM role in your account.

  2. Another Amazon account switches to that role to assume the role for your account.

  3. Because you own the IAM role, you receive a log that shows the other account assumed the role. The type is AWSAccount. For an example log entry, see Amazon STS API event in CloudTrail log file.

Example: Cross-account access initiated by an Amazon service
  1. You own an IAM role in your account.

  2. An Amazon account owned by an Amazon service assumes that role.

  3. Because you own the IAM role, you receive a log that shows the Amazon service assumed the role. The type is AWSService.

userName

The friendly name of the identity that made the call. The value that appears in userName is based on the value in type. The following table shows the relationship between type and userName:

type userName Description
Root (no alias set) Not present If you haven't set up an alias for your Amazon Web Services account, the userName field doesn't appear. For more information about account aliases, see Your Amazon Web Services account ID and its alias. Note that the userName field can't contain Root, because Root is an identity type and not a user name.
Root (alias set) The account alias For more information about Amazon Web Services account aliases, see Your Amazon Web Services account ID and its alias.
IAMUser The user name of the IAM user

AssumedRole

Not present For the AssumedRole type, you can find the userName field in sessionContext as part of the sessionIssuer element. For an example entry, see Examples.

Role

User-defined The sessionContext and sessionIssuer section contains information about the identity that issued the session for the role.
FederatedUser Not present The sessionContext and sessionIssuer section contains information about the identity that issued the session for the federated user.
Directory Can be present For example, the value can be the account alias or email address of the associated Amazon Web Services account ID.
AWSService Not present
AWSAccount Not present
IdentityCenterUser Not present The onBehalfOf section contains information about the IAM Identity Center user ID and identity store ARN for which the call was made. For more information about IAM Identity Center, see the Amazon IAM Identity Center User Guide.
Unknown Can be present For example, the value can be the account alias or email address of the associated Amazon Web Services account ID.

Optional: True

Note

The userName field contains the string HIDDEN_DUE_TO_SECURITY_REASONS when the recorded event is a console sign-in failure caused by incorrect user name input. CloudTrail does not record the contents in this case because the text could contain sensitive information, as in the following examples:

  • A user accidentally types a password in the user name field.

  • A user clicks the link for one Amazon account's sign-in page, but then types the account number for a different one.

  • A user accidentally types the account name of a personal email account, a bank sign-in identifier, or some other private ID.

principalId

A unique identifier for the entity that made the call. For requests made with temporary security credentials, this value includes the session name that is passed to the AssumeRole, AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity, or GetFederationToken API call.

Optional: True

arn

The Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the principal that made the call. The last section of the arn contains the user or role that made the call.

Optional: True

accountId

The account that owns the entity that granted permissions for the request. If the request was made with temporary security credentials, this is the account that owns the IAM user or role used to obtain credentials.

If the request was made with an IAM Identity Center authorized access token, this is the account that owns the IAM Identity Center instance.

Optional: True

accessKeyId

The access key ID that was used to sign the request. If the request was made with temporary security credentials, this is the access key ID of the temporary credentials. For security reasons, accessKeyId might not be present, or might be displayed as an empty string.

Optional: True

sessionContext

If the request was made with temporary security credentials, sessionContext provides information about the session created for those credentials. You create a session when you call any API that returns temporary credentials. Users also create sessions when they work in the console and make requests with APIs that include multi-factor authentication. This element has the following attributes:

  • creationDate – The date and time when the temporary security credentials were issued. Represented in ISO 8601 basic notation.

  • mfaAuthenticated – The value is true if the root user or IAM user who used their credentials for the request also authenticated with an MFA device; otherwise, false.

  • sourceIdentity – See Amazon STS source identity in this topic. The sourceIdentity field occurs in events when users assume an IAM role to perform an action. sourceIdentity identifies the original user identity making the request, whether that user's identity is an IAM user, an IAM role, a user authenticated through SAML-based federation, or a user authenticated through OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compliant web identity federation. For more information about configuring Amazon STS to collect source identity information, see Monitor and control actions taken with assumed roles in the IAM User Guide.

  • ec2RoleDelivery – The value is 1.0 if the credentials were provided by Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service Version 1 (IMDSv1). The value is 2.0 if the credentials were provided using the new IMDS scheme.

    Amazon credentials provided by the Amazon EC2 Instance Metadata Service (IMDS) include an ec2:RoleDelivery IAM context key. This context key makes it easy to enforce use of the new scheme on a service-by-service or resource-by-resource basis by using the context key as a condition in IAM policies, resource policies, or Amazon Organizations service control policies. For more information, see Instance metadata and user data in the Amazon EC2 User Guide for Linux Instances.

Optional: True

invokedBy

The name of the Amazon Web Service that made the request, when a request is made by an Amazon Web Service such as Amazon EC2 Auto Scaling or Amazon Elastic Beanstalk. This field is only present when a request is made by an Amazon Web Service. This includes requests made by services using forward access sessions (FAS), Amazon Web Service principals, service-linked roles, or service roles used by an Amazon Web Service.

Optional: True

sessionIssuer

If a user make a request with temporary security credentials, sessionIssuer provides information about how the user obtained credentials. For example, if the they obtained temporary security credentials by assuming a role, this element provides information about the assumed role. If they obtained credentials with root or IAM user credentials to call Amazon STS GetFederationToken, the element provides information about the root account or IAM user. This element has the following attributes:

  • type – The source of the temporary security credentials, such as Root, IAMUser, or Role.

  • userName – The friendly name of the user or role that issued the session. The value that appears depends on the sessionIssuer identity type. The following table shows the relationship between sessionIssuer type and userName:

    sessionIssuer type userName Description
    Root (no alias set) Not present If you have not set up an alias for your account, the userName field does not appear. For more information about Amazon Web Services account aliases, see Your Amazon Web Services account ID and its alias. Note that the userName field can't contain Root, because Root is an identity type, not a user name.
    Root (alias set) The account alias For more information about Amazon Web Services account aliases, see Your Amazon account ID and its alias.
    IAMUser The user name of the IAM user This also applies when a federated user is using a session issued by IAMUser.
    Role The role name A role assumed by an IAM user, Amazon Web Service, or web identity federated user in a role session.
  • principalId – The internal ID of the entity used to get credentials.

  • arn – The ARN of the source (account, IAM user, or role) that was used to get temporary security credentials.

  • accountId – The account that owns the entity that was used to get credentials.

Optional: True

onBehalfOf

If the request was made by an IAM Identity Center caller, onBehalfOf provides information about the IAM Identity Center user ID and identity store ARN for which the call was made. This element has the following attributes:

  • userId – The ID of the IAM Identity Center user who the call was made on behalf of.

  • identityStoreArn – The ARN of the IAM Identity Center identity store that the call was made on behalf of.

Optional: True

credentialId

The credential ID for the request. This is only set when the caller uses a bearer token, such as an IAM Identity Center authorized access token.

Optional: True

webIdFederationData

If the request was made with temporary security credentials obtained by web identity federation, webIdFederationData lists information about the identity provider. This element has the following attributes:

  • federatedProvider – The principal name of the identity provider (for example, www.amazon.com for Login with Amazon or accounts.google.com for Google).

  • attributes – The application ID and user ID as reported by the provider (for example, www.amazon.com:app_id and www.amazon.com:user_id for Login with Amazon).

Optional: True

Values for Amazon STS APIs with SAML and web identity federation

Amazon CloudTrail supports logging Amazon Security Token Service (Amazon STS) API calls made with Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) and web identity federation. When a user makes a call to the AssumeRoleWithSAML and AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity APIs, CloudTrail records the call and delivers the event to your Amazon S3 bucket.

The userIdentity element for these APIs contains the following values.

type

The identity type.

  • SAMLUser – The request was made with SAML assertion.

  • WebIdentityUser – The request was made by a web identity federation provider.

principalId

A unique identifier for the entity that made the call.

  • For SAMLUser, this is a combination of the saml:namequalifier and saml:sub keys.

  • For WebIdentityUser, this is a combination of the issuer, application ID, and user ID.

userName

The name of the identity that made the call.

  • For SAMLUser, this is the saml:sub key.

  • For WebIdentityUser, this is the user ID.

identityProvider

The principal name of the external identity provider. This field appears only for SAMLUser or WebIdentityUser types.

  • For SAMLUser, this is the saml:namequalifier key for the SAML assertion.

  • For WebIdentityUser, this is the issuer name of the web identity federation provider. This can be a provider that you configured, such as the following:

    • cognito-identity.amazon.com for Amazon Cognito

    • www.amazon.com for Login with Amazon

    • accounts.google.com for Google

    • graph.facebook.com for Facebook

The following is an example userIdentity element for the AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity action.

"userIdentity": { "type": "WebIdentityUser", "principalId": "accounts.google.com:application-id.apps.googleusercontent.com:user-id", "userName": "user-id", "identityProvider": "accounts.google.com" }

For example logs of how the userIdentity element appears for SAMLUser and WebIdentityUser types, see Logging IAM and Amazon STS API calls with Amazon CloudTrail.

Amazon STS source identity

An IAM administrator can configure Amazon Security Token Service to require that users specify their identity when they use temporary credentials to assume roles. The sourceIdentity field occurs in events when users assume an IAM role or perform any actions with the assumed role.

The sourceIdentity field identifies the original user identity making the request, whether that user's identity is an IAM user, an IAM role, a user authenticated by using SAML-based federation, or a user authenticated by using OpenID Connect (OIDC)-compliant web identity federation. After the IAM administrator configures Amazon STS, CloudTrail logs sourceIdentity information in the following events and locations within the event record:

  • The Amazon STS AssumeRole, AssumeRoleWithSAML, or AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity calls that a user identity makes when it assumes a role. sourceIdentity is found in the requestParameters block of the Amazon STS calls.

  • The Amazon STS AssumeRole, AssumeRoleWithSAML, or AssumeRoleWithWebIdentity calls that a user identity makes if it uses a role to assume another role, known as role chaining. sourceIdentity is found in the requestParameters block of the Amazon STS calls.

  • The Amazon service API calls that the user identity makes while assuming a role and using the temporary credentials assigned by Amazon STS. In service API events, sourceIdentity is found in the sessionContext block. For example, if a user identity creates a new S3 bucket, sourceIdentity occurs in the sessionContext block of the CreateBucket event.

For more information about how to configure Amazon STS to collect source identity information, see Monitor and control actions taken with assumed roles in the IAM User Guide. For more information about Amazon STS events that are logged to CloudTrail, see Logging IAM and Amazon STS API calls with Amazon CloudTrail in the IAM User Guide.

The following are example snippets of events that show the sourceIdentity field.

Example requestParameters section

In the following example event snippet, a user makes an Amazon STS AssumeRole request, and sets a source identity, represented here by source-identity-value-set. The user assumes a role represented by the role ARN arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Assumed_Role. The sourceIdentity field is in the requestParameters block of the event.

"eventVersion": "1.05", "userIdentity": { "type": "AWSAccount", "principalId": "AIDAJ45Q7YFFAREXAMPLE", "accountId": "123456789012" }, "eventTime": "2020-04-02T18:20:53Z", "eventSource": "sts.amazonaws.com", "eventName": "AssumeRole", "awsRegion": "us-east-1", "sourceIPAddress": "203.0.113.64", "userAgent": "aws-cli/1.16.96 Python/3.6.0 Windows/10 botocore/1.12.86", "requestParameters": { "roleArn": "arn:aws:iam::123456789012:role/Assumed_Role", "roleSessionName": "Test1", "sourceIdentity": "source-identity-value-set", },

Example responseElements section

In the following example event snippet, a user makes an Amazon STS AssumeRole request to assume a role named Developer_Role, and sets a source identity, Admin. The user assumes a role represented by the role ARN arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/Developer_Role. The sourceIdentity field is shown in both the requestParameters and responseElements blocks of the event. The temporary credentials used to assume the role, the session token string, and the assumed role ID, session name, and session ARN are shown in the responseElements block, along with the source identity.

"requestParameters": { "roleArn": "arn:aws:iam::111122223333:role/Developer_Role", "roleSessionName": "Session_Name", "sourceIdentity": "Admin" }, "responseElements": { "credentials": { "accessKeyId": "ASIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "expiration": "Jan 22, 2021 12:46:28 AM", "sessionToken": "XXYYaz... EXAMPLE_SESSION_TOKEN XXyYaZAz" }, "assumedRoleUser": { "assumedRoleId": "AROACKCEVSQ6C2EXAMPLE:Session_Name", "arn": "arn:aws:sts::111122223333:assumed-role/Developer_Role/Session_Name" }, "sourceIdentity": "Admin" } ...

Example sessionContext section

In the following example event snippet, a user is assuming a role named DevRole to call an Amazon service API. The user sets a source identity, represented here by source-identity-value-set. The sourceIdentity field is in the sessionContext block, within the userIdentity block of the event.

{ "eventVersion": "1.08", "userIdentity": { "type": "AssumedRole", "principalId": "AROAJ45Q7YFFAREXAMPLE: Dev1", "arn": "arn: aws: sts: : 123456789012: assumed-role/DevRole/Dev1", "accountId": "123456789012", "accessKeyId": "ASIAIOSFODNN7EXAMPLE", "sessionContext": { "sessionIssuer": { "type": "Role", "principalId": "AROAJ45Q7YFFAREXAMPLE", "arn": "arn: aws: iam: : 123456789012: role/DevRole", "accountId": "123456789012", "userName": "DevRole" }, "webIdFederationData": {}, "attributes": { "mfaAuthenticated": "false", "creationDate": "2021-02-21T23: 46: 28Z" }, "sourceIdentity": "source-identity-value-set" } } }