Migration Quick Tips - SQL Server to Aurora PostgreSQL Migration Playbook
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Migration Quick Tips

This section provides migration tips that can help save time as you transition from Microsoft SQL Server to Aurora PostgreSQL. They address many of the challenges faced by administrators new to Aurora PostgreSQL. Some of these tips describe functional differences in similar features between SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL.

Management

  • The equivalent of SQL Server’s CREATE DATABASE…​ AS SNAPSHOT OF…​ resembles Aurora PostgreSQL database cloning. However, unlike SQL Server snapshots, which are read-only, you can update Aurora PostgreSQL cloned databases.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL terminology, Database Snapshot is equivalent to SQL Server BACKUP DATABASE…​ WITH COPY_ONLY.

  • Partitioning in Aurora PostgreSQL is called INHERITS tables and act completely different in terms of management.

  • Unlike SQL Server’s statistics, Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t collect detailed key value distribution; it relies on selectivity only. When troubleshooting run issues, be aware that parameter values are insignificant to plan choices.

  • You can achieve many missing features, such as sending emails, with quick implementations of Amazon services such as Lambda.

  • Parameters and backups are managed by Amazon RDS. It is very useful in terms of checking parameter’s value against its default and comparing them to another parameter group.

  • You can implement high availability in few clicks to create replicas.

  • With Database Links, the db_link extension is similar to SQL Server.

SQL

  • Triggers work differently in Aurora PostgreSQL. You can run triggers for each row. The syntax for inserted and deleted for each row is new and old.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t support @@FETCH_STATUS system parameter for cursors. When you declare cursors in Aurora PostgreSQL, create an explicit HANDLER object.

  • To run a stored procedure or function, use SELECT instead of EXECUTE.

  • To run a string as a query, use Aurora PostgreSQL Prepared Statements instead of EXECUTE (<String>) syntax.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL, terminate IF blocks with END IF and the WHILE..LOOP loops with END LOOP.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL, use START TRANSACTION to open a transaction instead of BEGIN TRANSACTION. Use COMMIT and ROLLBACK without the TRANSACTION keyword.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t use special data types for UNICODE data. All string types may use any character set and any relevant collation.

  • You can define collations at the server, database, and column level, similar to SQL Server. You can’t define collations at the table level.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t support DELETE <Table Name> syntax, where you drop the FROM keyword. Add the FROM keyword to all DELETE statements.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL, you can use multiple rows with NULL for a UNIQUE constraint. In SQL Server, you can only use one. Aurora PostgreSQL follows the behavior specified in the ANSI standard.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL SERIAL column property is similar to IDENTITY in SQL Server. However, there is a major difference in the way sequences are maintained. SQL Server caches a set of values in memory and records the last allocation on disk. When the service restarts, some values may be lost, but the sequence continues from where it left off. In Aurora PostgreSQL, each time you restart the service, the seed value to SERIAL is reset to one increment interval larger than the largest existing value. Sequence position isn’t maintained across service restarts.

  • Parameter names in Aurora PostgreSQL don’t require a preceding @. You can declare local variables such as SET schema.test = value and get the value by running the SELECT current_setting('username.test'); query.

  • Local parameter scope isn’t limited to the run scope. You can define or set a parameter in one statement, run it, and then query it in the following batch.

  • Error handling in Aurora PostgreSQL has less features, but for special requirements, you can log or send alerts by inserting into tables or catching errors.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t support the MERGE statement. Use the REPLACE statement and the INSERT…​ ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE statement as alternatives.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL, you can’t concatenate strings with the + operator. Use the CONCAT function instead. For example, CONCAT('A', 'B').

  • Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Compatible Edition (Aurora PostgreSQL) doesn’t support aliasing in the select list using the String Alias = Expression. Aurora PostgreSQL treats it as a logical predicate, returns 0 or FALSE, and will alias the column with the full expression. Use the AS syntax instead. Also note that this syntax has been deprecated as of SQL Server 2008 R2.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL has a large set of string functions that is much more diverse than SQL Server. Some of the more useful string functions are:

    • TRIM isn’t limited to full trim or spaces. The syntax is TRIM([{BOTH | LEADING | TRAILING} [<remove string>] FROM] <source string>)).

    • LENGTH in PostgreSQL is equivalent to DATALENGTH in T-SQL. CHAR_LENGTH is the equivalent of T-SQL LENGTH.

    • SUBSTRING_INDEX returns a substring from a string before the specified number of occurrences of the delimiter.

    • FIELD returns the index position of the first argument in the subsequent arguments.

    • POSITION returns the index position of the first argument within the second argument.

    • REGEXP_MATCHES provides support for regular expressions.

    • For more information, see String Functions and Operators.

  • The Aurora PostgreSQL CAST function is for casting between collation and not other data types. Use CONVERT for casting data types.

  • Aurora PostgreSQL is much stricter than SQL Server in terms of statement terminators. Make sure that you always use a semicolon at the end of statements.

  • In Aurora PostgreSQL, you can’t use the CREATE PROCEDURE syntax. You can use only the CREATE FUNCTION syntax. You can create a function that returns void.

  • Beware of control characters when copying and pasting a script to Aurora PostgreSQL clients. Aurora PostgreSQL is much more sensitive to control characters than SQL Server and they result in frustrating syntax errors that are hard to find.