Set up the Amazon VPC where your Amazon Neptune DB cluster is located - Amazon Neptune
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Set up the Amazon VPC where your Amazon Neptune DB cluster is located

An Amazon Neptune DB cluster can only be created in an Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC). Its endpoints are accessible within that VPC.

There are a number of different ways to set up the VPC, depending on how you want to access your DB cluster.

Here are some things to keep in mind when configuring the VPC where your Neptune DB cluster is located:

  • Your VPC must have at least two subnets. These subnets must be in two different Availability Zones (AZs). By distributing your cluster instances across at least two AZs, Neptune helps ensure that there are always instances available in your DB cluster even in the unlikely event of an availability zone failure. The cluster volume for your Neptune DB cluster always spans three AZs to provide durable storage with extremely low likelihood of data loss.

  • The CIDR blocks in each subnet must be large enough to provide IP addresses that Neptune may need during maintenance activities, failover, and scaling.

  • The VPC must have a DB subnet group that contains subnets that you have created. Neptune chooses one of the subnets in the subnet group and an IP address within that subnet to associate with each DB instance in the DB cluster. The DB instance is then located in the same AZ as the subnet.

  • The VPC should have DNS enabled (both DNS hostnames and DNS resolution).

  • The VPC must have a VPC security group to allows access to your DB cluster.

  • Tenancy in a Neptune VPC should be set to Default.

Adding subnets to the VPC where your Neptune DB cluster is located

A subnet is a range of IP addresses in your VPC. You can launch resources such as a Neptune DB cluster or an EC2 instance into a specific subnet. When you create a subnet, you specify the IPv4 CIDR block for the subnet, which is a subset of the VPC CIDR block. Each subnet must reside entirely within one Availability Zone (AZ) and cannot span zones. By launching instances in separate Availability Zones, you can protect your applications from a failure in one of the zones. See VPC subnet documentation for more information.

A Neptune DB cluster requires at least two VPC subnets.

To add subnets to a VPC
  1. Sign in to the Amazon Web Services Management Console and open the Amazon VPC console at

  2. In the navigation pane, choose Subnets.

  3. In the VPC Dashboard choose Subnets, and then choose Create subnet.

  4. On the Create subnet page, choose the VPC where you want to create the subnet.

  5. Under Subnet settings, make the following choices:

    1. Enter a name for the new subnet under Subnet name.

    2. Choose an Availability Zone (AZ) for the subnet, or leave the choice at No preference.

    3. Enter the subnet's IP address block under IPv4 CIDR block.

    4. Add tags to the subnet if you need to.

    5. Choose

  6. If you want to create another subnet at the same time, choose Add new subnet.

  7. Choose Create subnet to create the new subnet(s).

Create a subnet group in the VPC

Create a subnet group.

To create a Neptune subnet group
  1. Sign in to the Amazon Management Console, and open the Amazon Neptune console at

  2. Choose Subnet groups, and then choose Create DB Subnet Group.

  3. Enter a name and description for the new subnet group (the description is required).

  4. Under VPC, choose the VPC where you want this subnet group to be located.

  5. Under Avalability zone, choose the AZ where you want this subnet group to be located.

  6. Under Subnet, add one or more of the subnets in this AZ to this subnet group.

  7. Choose Create to create the new subnet group.

Create a security group using the VPC console

Security groups provide access to your Neptune DB cluster in the VPC. They act as a firewall for the associated DB cluster, controlling both inbound and outbound traffic at the instance level. By default, a DB instance is created with a firewall and a default security group that prevents any access to it. To enable access, you must have a VPC security group with additional rules.

The following procedure shows you how to add a custom TCP rule that specifies the port range and IP addresses for the Amazon EC2 instance to use to access your Neptune DB cluster. You can use the VPC security group assigned to the EC2 instance rather than its IP address.

To create a VPC security group for Neptune on the console
  1. Sign in to the Amazon Web Services Management Console and open the Amazon VPC console at

  2. In the upper-right corner of the console, choose the Amazon region where you want to create a VPC security group for Neptune. In the list of Amazon VPC resources for that region, it should show that you have at least one VPC and several subnets. If it does not, you don't have a default VPC in that Region.

  3. In the navigation pane under Security, choose Security Groups.

  4. Choose Create security group. In the Create security group window, enter the Security group name, a Description, and the identifier of the VPC where your Neptune DB cluster will reside.

  5. Add an inbound rule for the security group of an Amazon EC2 instance that you want connected to your Neptune DB cluster:

    1. In the Inbound rules area, choose Add rule.

    2. In the Type list, leave Custom TCP selected.

    3. In the Port range box, enter 8182, the default port value for Neptune.

    4. Under Source, enter the IP address range (CIDR value) from which you will access Neptune, or choose an existing security group name.

    5. If you need to add more IP addresses or different port ranges, choose Add rule again.

  6. In the Outbound rules area, you can also add one or more outbound rules if you need to.

  7. When you finish, choose Create security group.

You can use this new VPC security group when you create a new Neptune DB cluster.

If you use a default VPC, a default subnet group spanning all of the VPC's subnets is already created for you. When you choose the Create database in the Neptune console, the default VPC is used unless you specify a different one.

Make sure that you have DNS support in your VPC

Domain Name System (DNS) is a standard by which names used on the internet are resolved to their corresponding IP addresses. A DNS hostname uniquely names a computer and consists of a host name and a domain name. DNS servers resolve DNS hostnames to their corresponding IP addresses.

Check to make sure that DNS hostnames and DNS resolution are both enabled in your VPC. The VPC network attributes enableDnsHostnames and enableDnsSupport must be set to true. To view and modify these attributes, go to the VPC console at

For more information, see Using DNS with your VPC.


If you are using Route 53, confirm that your configuration does not override DNS network attributes in your VPC.