Example: Connecting to Neptune Using Python with Signature Version 4 Signing - Amazon Neptune
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Example: Connecting to Neptune Using Python with Signature Version 4 Signing

This section shows an example program written in Python that illustrates how to work with Signature Version 4 for Amazon Neptune. This example is based on the examples in the Signature Version 4 Signing Process section in the Amazon Web Services General Reference.

To work with this example program, you need the following:

  • Python 3.x installed on your computer, which you can get from the Python site. These programs were tested using Python 3.6.

  • The Python requests library, which is used in the example script to make web requests. A convenient way to install Python packages is to use pip, which gets packages from the Python package index site. You can then install requests by running pip install requests at the command line.

  • An access key (access key ID and secret access key) in environment variables named AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID and AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY. As a best practice, we recommend that you do not embed credentials in code. For more information, see Best Practices for Managing Amazon Access Keys in the Amazon Web Services General Reference.

    The Region of your Neptune DB cluster in an environment variable named SERVICE_REGION.

    If you are using temporary credentials, you must specify AWS_SESSION_TOKEN in addition to AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY, and SERVICE_REGION.

    Note

    If you are using temporary credentials, they expire after a specified interval, including the session token.

    You must update your session token when you request new credentials. For more information, see Using Temporary Security Credentials to Request Access to Amazon Resources.

The following example shows how to make signed requests to Neptune using Python. The request makes a either a GET or POST request. Authentication information is passed using the Authorization request header.

This example also works as an Amazon Lambda function. For more information, see Setting Up Amazon Lambda for Neptune IAM Authentication.

To make signed requests to the Gremlin and SPARQL Neptune endpoints

  1. Create a new file named neptunesigv4.py, and open it in a text editor.

  2. Copy the following code and paste it into the neptunesigv4.py file.

    # Amazon Neptune version 4 signing example (version v3) # The following script requires python 3.6+ # (sudo yum install python36 python36-virtualenv python36-pip) # => the reason is that we're using urllib.parse() to manually encode URL # parameters: the problem here is that SIGV4 encoding requires whitespaces # to be encoded as %20 rather than not or using '+', as done by previous/ # default versions of the library. # See: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/general/latest/gr/sigv4_signing.html import sys, datetime, hashlib, hmac import requests # pip3 install requests import urllib import os import json from botocore.auth import SigV4Auth from botocore.awsrequest import AWSRequest from botocore.credentials import ReadOnlyCredentials from types import SimpleNamespace from argparse import RawTextHelpFormatter from argparse import ArgumentParser # Configuration. https is required. protocol = 'https' # The following lines enable debugging at httplib level (requests->urllib3->http.client) # You will see the REQUEST, including HEADERS and DATA, and RESPONSE with HEADERS but without DATA. # # The only thing missing will be the response.body which is not logged. # # import logging # from http.client import HTTPConnection # HTTPConnection.debuglevel = 1 # logging.basicConfig() # logging.getLogger().setLevel(logging.DEBUG) # requests_log = logging.getLogger("requests.packages.urllib3") # requests_log.setLevel(logging.DEBUG) # requests_log.propagate = True # Read AWS access key from env. variables. Best practice is NOT # to embed credentials in code. access_key = os.getenv('AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID', '') secret_key = os.getenv('AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY', '') region = os.getenv('SERVICE_REGION', '') # AWS_SESSION_TOKEN is optional environment variable. Specify a session token only if you are using temporary # security credentials. session_token = os.getenv('AWS_SESSION_TOKEN', '') ### Note same script can be used for AWS Lambda (runtime = python3.6). ## Steps to use this python script for AWS Lambda # 1. AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY and AWS_SESSION_TOKEN and AWS_REGION variables are already part of Lambda's Execution environment # No need to set them up explicitly. # 3. Create Lambda deployment package https://docs.aws.amazon.com/lambda/latest/dg/lambda-python-how-to-create-deployment-package.html # 4. Create a Lambda function in the same VPC and assign an IAM role with neptune access def lambda_handler(event, context): # sample_test_input = { # "host": "END_POINT:8182", # "method": "GET", # "query_type": "gremlin", # "query": "g.V().count()" # } # Lambda uses AWS_REGION instead of SERVICE_REGION global region region = os.getenv('AWS_REGION', '') host = event['host'] method = event['method'] query_type = event['query_type'] query = event['query'] return make_signed_request(host, method, query_type, query) def validate_input(method, query_type): # Supporting GET and POST for now: if (method != 'GET' and method != 'POST'): print('First parameter must be "GET" or "POST", but is "' + method + '".') sys.exit() # SPARQL UPDATE requires POST if (method == 'GET' and query_type == 'sparqlupdate'): print('SPARQL UPDATE is not supported in GET mode. Please choose POST.') sys.exit() def get_canonical_uri_and_payload(query_type, query, method): # Set the stack and payload depending on query_type. if (query_type == 'sparql'): canonical_uri = '/sparql/' payload = {'query': query} elif (query_type == 'sparqlupdate'): canonical_uri = '/sparql/' payload = {'update': query} elif (query_type == 'gremlin'): canonical_uri = '/gremlin/' payload = {'gremlin': query} if (method == 'POST'): payload = json.dumps(payload) elif (query_type == 'openCypher'): canonical_uri = '/openCypher/' payload = {'query': query} elif (query_type == "loader"): canonical_uri = "/loader/" payload = json.loads(query) elif (query_type == "status"): canonical_uri = "/status/" payload = {} elif (query_type == "gremlin/status"): canonical_uri = "/gremlin/status/" payload = {} elif (query_type == "openCypher/status"): canonical_uri = "/openCypher/status/" payload = {} elif (query_type == "sparql/status"): canonical_uri = "/sparql/status/" payload = {} else: print( 'Third parameter should be from ["gremlin", "sparql", "sparqlupdate", "loader", "status] but is "' + query_type + '".') sys.exit() ## return output as tuple return canonical_uri, payload def make_signed_request(host, method, query_type, query): service = 'neptune-db' endpoint = protocol + '://' + host print() print('+++++ USER INPUT +++++') print('host = ' + host) print('method = ' + method) print('query_type = ' + query_type) print('query = ' + query) # validate input validate_input(method, query_type) # get canonical_uri and payload canonical_uri, payload = get_canonical_uri_and_payload(query_type, query, method) print('payload = {}'.format(payload)) # assign payload to data or params data = payload if method == 'POST' else None params = payload if method == 'GET' else None # create request URL request_url = endpoint + canonical_uri # create and sign request creds = SimpleNamespace( access_key=access_key, secret_key=secret_key, token=session_token, region=region, ) request = AWSRequest(method=method, url=request_url, data=data, params=params) SigV4Auth(creds, service, region).add_auth(request) r = None # ************* SEND THE REQUEST ************* if (method == 'GET'): print('++++ BEGIN GET REQUEST +++++') print('Request URL = ' + request_url) r = requests.get(request_url, headers=request.headers, verify=False, params=params) elif (method == 'POST'): print('\n+++++ BEGIN POST REQUEST +++++') print('Request URL = ' + request_url) r = requests.post(request_url, headers=request.headers, verify=False, data=data) else: print('Request method is neither "GET" nor "POST", something is wrong here.') if r: print() print('+++++ RESPONSE +++++') print('Response code: %d\n' % r.status_code) response = r.text r.close() print(response) return response help_msg = ''' export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=[MY_ACCESS_KEY_ID] export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=[MY_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY] export AWS_SESSION_TOKEN=[MY_AWS_SESSION_TOKEN] export SERVICE_REGION=[us-east-1|us-east-2|us-west-2|eu-west-1] python version >=3.6 is required. Examples: For help python3 program_name.py -h Examples: Queries python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q status python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q sparql/status python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q sparql -d "SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s ?p ?o }" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q sparql -d "SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s ?p ?o }" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q sparqlupdate -d "INSERT DATA { <https://s> <https://p> <https://o> }" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q gremlin/status python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q gremlin -d "g.V().count()" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q gremlin -d "g.V().count()" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q openCypher/status python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q openCypher -d "MATCH (n1) RETURN n1 LIMIT 1;" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q openCypher -d "MATCH (n1) RETURN n1 LIMIT 1;" python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q loader -d '{"loadId": "68b28dcc-8e15-02b1-133d-9bd0557607e6"}' python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q loader -d '{}' python3 program_name.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q loader -d '{"source": "source", "format" : "csv", "failOnError": "fail_on_error", "iamRoleArn": "iam_role_arn", "region": "region"}' Environment variables must be defined as AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY and SERVICE_REGION. You should also set AWS_SESSION_TOKEN environment variable if you are using temporary credentials (ex. IAM Role or EC2 Instance profile). Current Limitations: - Query mode "sparqlupdate" requires POST (as per the SPARQL 1.1 protocol) ''' def exit_and_print_help(): print(help_msg) exit() def parse_input_and_query_neptune(): parser = ArgumentParser(description=help_msg, formatter_class=RawTextHelpFormatter) group_host = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group() group_host.add_argument("-ho", "--host", type=str) group_port = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group() group_port.add_argument("-p", "--port", type=int, help="port ex. 8182, default=8182", default=8182) group_action = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group() group_action.add_argument("-a", "--action", type=str, help="http action, default = GET", default="GET") group_endpoint = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group() group_endpoint.add_argument("-q", "--query_type", type=str, help="query_type, default = status ", default="status") group_data = parser.add_mutually_exclusive_group() group_data.add_argument("-d", "--data", type=str, help="data required for the http action", default="") args = parser.parse_args() print("parsed input: ") print(args) # Read command line parameters host = args.host port = args.port method = args.action query_type = args.query_type query = args.data if (access_key == ''): print('!!! ERROR: Your AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID environment variable is undefined.') exit_and_print_help() if (secret_key == ''): print('!!! ERROR: Your AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY environment variable is undefined.') exit_and_print_help() if (region == ''): print('!!! ERROR: Your SERVICE_REGION environment variable is undefined.') exit_and_print_help() if host is None: print('!!! ERROR: Neptune DNS is missing') exit_and_print_help() host = host + ":" + str(port) make_signed_request(host, method, query_type, query) if __name__ == "__main__": print('here') parse_input_and_query_neptune()
  3. In a terminal, navigate to the location of the neptunesigv4.py file.

  4. Enter the following commands, replacing the access key, secret key, and Region with the correct values.

    export AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID=MY_ACCESS_KEY_ID export AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY=MY_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY export SERVICE_REGION=us-east-1 or us-east-2 or us-west-1 or us-west-2 or ca-central-1 or sa-east-1 or eu-north-1 or eu-west-1 or eu-west-2 or eu-west-3 or eu-central-1 or me-south-1 or af-south-1 or ap-east-1 or ap-northeast-1 or ap-northeast-2 or ap-southeast-1 or ap-southeast-2 or ap-south-1 or cn-north-1 or cn-northwest-1 or us-gov-east-1 or us-gov-west-1

    If you are using temporary credentials, you must specify AWS_SESSION_TOKEN in addition to AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID, AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY, and SERVICE_REGION.

    export AWS_SESSION_TOKEN=MY_AWS_SESSION_TOKEN
    Note

    If you are using temporary credentials, they expire after a specified interval, including the session token.

    You must update your session token when you request new credentials. For more information, see Using Temporary Security Credentials to Request Access to Amazon Resources.

  5. Enter one of the following commands to send a signed request to the Neptune DB instance. These examples use Python version 3.6.

    Endpoint Status

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -a GET -q status

    Gremlin

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q gremlin -d "g.V().count()" python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q gremlin -d "g.V().count()"

    Gremlin status

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q gremlin/status

    SPARQL

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q sparql -d "SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s ?p ?o }"

    SPARQL UPDATE

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q sparql -d "SELECT ?s WHERE { ?s ?p ?o }" -p 8182 -a POST -q sparqlupdate -d "INSERT DATA { <https://s> <https://p> <https://o> }"

    SPARQL status

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q sparql/status

    openCypher

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q openCypher -d "MATCH (n1) RETURN n1 LIMIT 1;" python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q openCypher -d "MATCH (n1) RETURN n1 LIMIT 1;"

    openCypher status

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q openCypher/status

    Loader

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q loader -d '{"loadId": "68b28dcc-8e15-02b1-133d-9bd0557607e6"}' python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a GET -q loader -d '{}' python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p 8182 -a POST -q loader -d '{"source": "source", "format" : "csv", "failOnError": "fail_on_error", "iamRoleArn": "iam_role_arn", "region": "region"}'
  6. The syntax for running the Python script is as follows:

    python3.6 neptunesigv4.py -ho your-neptune-endpoint -p port -a GET|POST -q gremlin|sparql|sparqlupdate|loader|status -d "string0data"

    SPARQL UPDATE requires POST.