Using the SPARQL 1.1 Graph Store HTTP Protocol (GSP) in Amazon Neptune - Amazon Neptune
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Using the SPARQL 1.1 Graph Store HTTP Protocol (GSP) in Amazon Neptune

In the SPARQL 1.1 Graph Store HTTP Protocol recommendation, the W3C defined an HTTP protocol for managing RDF graphs. It defines operations for removing, creating, and replacing RDF graph content as well as for adding RDF statements to existing content.

The graph-store protocol (GSP) provides a convenient way to manipulate your entire graph without having to write complex SPARQL queries.

As of Release: (2021-07-27), Neptune fully supports this protocol.

The endpoint for the graph-store protocol (GSP) is:


To access the default graph with GSP, use:


To access a named graph with GSP, use:


Special details of the Neptune GSP implementation

Neptune fully implements the W3C recommendation that defines GSP. However, there are a few situations that the specification doesn't cover.

One of these is the case where a PUT or POST request specifies one or more named graphs in the request body that differ from the graph specified by the request URL. This can only happen when the request body RDF format supports named graphs, as, for example, using Content-Type: application/n-quads or Content-Type: application/trig.

In this situation, Neptune adds or updates all the named graphs present in the body, as well as the named graph specified in the URL.

For example, suppose that starting with an empty database, you send a PUT request to upsert votes into three graphs. One, named urn:votes, contains all votes from all election years. Two others, named urn:votes:2005 and urn:votes:2019, contain votes from specific election years. The request and its payload look like this:

PUT "http://your-Neptune-cluster:port/sparql/gsp/?graph=urn:votes" Host: Content-Type: application/n-quads PAYLOAD: <urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Labour> <urn:votes:2005> <urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes:2019> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:LiberalDemocrats> <urn:votes:2005> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes:2019>

After the request is executed, the data in the database looks like this:

<urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Labour> <urn:votes:2005> <urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes:2019> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:LiberalDemocrats> <urn:votes:2005> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes:2019> <urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Labour> <urn:votes> <urn:JohnDoe> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:LiberalDemocrats> <urn:votes> <urn:JaneSmith> <urn:votedFor> <urn:Conservative> <urn:votes>

Another ambiguous situation is where more than one graph is specied in the request URL itself, using any of PUT, POST, GET or DELETE. For example:

POST "http://your-Neptune-cluster:port/sparql/gsp/?graph=urn:votes:2005&graph=urn:votes:2019"


GET "http://your-Neptune-cluster:port/sparql/gsp/?default&graph=urn:votes:2019"

In this situation, Neptune returns an HTTP 400 with a message indicating that only one graph can be specified in the request URL.