Using Neptune streams cross-region replication for disaster recovery - Amazon Neptune
Services or capabilities described in Amazon Web Services documentation might vary by Region. To see the differences applicable to the China Regions, see Getting Started with Amazon Web Services in China (PDF).

Using Neptune streams cross-region replication for disaster recovery

Neptune provides two ways of implementing cross-region failover capabilities:

  • Cross-region snapshot copy and restore

  • Using Neptune streams to replicate data between two clusters in two different regions.

Cross-region snapshot copy and restore has the lowest operational overhead for recovering a Neptune cluster in a different region. However, copying a snapshot between regions can requires significant data-transfer time, since a snapshot is a full backup of the Neptune cluster. As a result, cross-region snapshot copy and restore can be used for scenarios that only require a Recovery Point Objective (RPO) of hours and a Recovery Time Objective (RTO) of hours.

A Recovery Point Objective (RPO) is measured by the time in between backups. It defines how much data may be lost between the time the last backup was made and the time at which the database is recovered.

A Recovery Time Objective (RTO) is measured by the time it takes to perform a recovery operation. This is the time it takes the DB cluster to fail over to a recovered database after a failure occurs.

Neptune streams provides a way to keep a backup Neptune cluster in sync with the primary production cluster at all times. If a failure occurs, your database then fails over to the backup cluster. This reduces RPO and RTO to minutes, since data is constantly being copied to the backup cluster, which is immediately available as a failover target at any time.

The drawback of using Neptune streams in this way is that both the operational overhead required to maintain the replication components, and the cost of having a second Neptune DB cluster online all of the time, can be significant.

Setting up Neptune-to-Neptune replication

Your primary production DB cluster resides in a VPC in a given source region. There are three main things that you need to replicate or emulate in a different, recovery region for the purposes of disaster recovery:

  • The data stored in the cluster.

  • The configuration of the primary cluster. This would include whether it uses IAM authentication, whether it is encrypted, its DB cluster parameters, its instance parameters, instance sizes, and so forth).

  • The networking topology it uses, including the target VPC, its security groups, and so forth.

You can use Neptune management APIs such as the following to gather that information:

With the information you gather, you can use the following procedure to set up a backup cluster in a different region, to which your production cluster can fail over in the event of a failure.

1: Enable Neptune streams

You can use the ModifyDBClusterParameterGroup to set the neptune_streams parameter to 1. Then, reboot all the instances in the DB cluster so that change takes effect.

It's a good idea to perform at least one add or update operation on the source DB cluster after Neptune streams has been enabled. This populates the change stream with data points that can be referenced later when re-syncing the production cluster with the backup cluster.

2: Create a new VPC in the region where you want to set up your backup cluster

Before creating a new Neptune DB cluster in a different region from your primary cluster, you need to establish a new VPC in the target region to host the cluster. Connectivity between the primary and backup clusters is established through VPC peering, which uses traffic across private subnets in different VPCs. However, to establish VPC peering between two VPCs, they must not have overlapping CIDR blocks or IP address spaces. This that you can't just use the default VPC in both regions, because the CIDR block for a default VPC is always the same (

You can use an existing VPC in the target region as long as it meets the following conditions:

  • It does not have a CIDR block that overlaps with the CIDR block of the VPC where your primary cluster is located.

  • It is not already peered with another VPC that has the same CIDR block as the VPC where your primary cluster is located.

If there is no suitable VPC available in the target region, create one using the Amazon EC2 CreateVpc API.

3: Create a snapshot of your primary cluster and restore it to the target backup region

Now you create a new Neptune cluster in an appropriate VPC in the target backup region that is a copy of your production cluster:

Make a copy of your production cluster in the backup region
  1. In your target backup region, re-create the parameters and parameter groups used by your production DB cluster. You can do this using CreateDBClusterParameterGroup, CreateDBParameterGroup, ModifyDBClusterParameterGroup and ModifyDBParameterGroup.

    Note that the CopyDBClusterParameterGroup and CopyDBParameterGroup APIs do not currently support cross-region copying.

  2. Use CreateDBClusterSnapshot to create a snapshot of your production cluster in the VPC in your production region.

  3. Use CopyDBClusterSnapshot to copy the snapshot to the VPC in your target backup region.

  4. Use RestoreDBClusterFromSnapshot to create a new DB cluster in the VPC in your target backup region using the copied snapshot. Use the configuration settings and parameters that you copied from your primary production cluster.

  5. The new Neptune cluster now exists but doesn't contain any instances. Use CreateDBInstance to create a new primary/writer instance that has the same instance type and size as your production cluster's writer instance. There's no need to create additional read-replicas at this point unless your backup instance will be used to service read I/O in the target region prior to a failover.

4: Establish VPC peering between your primary cluster's VPC and your new backup cluster's VPC

By setting up VPC peering, you enable your primary cluster's VPC to communicate with your backup cluster's VPC as if they are a single private network. To do this, take the following steps:

  1. From your production cluster's VPC, call the CreateVpcPeeringConnection API to establish the peering connection.

  2. From your target backup cluster's VPC, call the AcceptVpcPeeringConnection API to accept the peering connection.

  3. From your production cluster's VPC, use the CreateRoute API to add a route to the VPC's route table that redirects all traffic to the target VPC's CIDR block so that it uses the VPC peering prefix list.

  4. Similarly, from your target backup cluster's VPC, use the CreateRoute API to add a route to the VPC's route table that routes traffic to the primary cluster's VPC.

5: Set up the Neptune streams replication infrastructure

Now that both clusters are deployed and network communication between both regions has been established, use the Neptune-to-Neptune Amazon CloudFormation template to deploy the Neptune streams consumer Lambda function with the additional infrastructure that supports data replication. Do this in your primary production cluster's VPC.

The parameters that you will need to provide for this Amazon CloudFormation stack are:

  • NeptuneStreamEndpoint   –   The stream endpoint for the primary cluster, in URL format. For example: https://(cluster name):8182/pg/stream.

  • QueryEngine   –   This must be either gremlin, sparql, or openCypher.

  • RouteTableIds   –   Lets you add routes for both a DynamoDB VPC Endpoint and a monitoring VPC Endpoint.

    Two additional parameters, namely CreateMonitoringEndpoint and CreateDynamoDBEndpoint, must also be set to true if they do not already exists on the primary cluster's VPC. If they do already exist, make sure they are set to false or the Amazon CloudFormation creation will fail.

  • SecurityGroupIds   –   Specifies the security group used by the Lambda consumer to communicate with the primary cluster's Neptune stream endpoint.

    In the target backup cluster, attach a security group that allows traffic originating from this security group.

  • SubnetIds   –   A list of subnet ID in the primary cluster's VPC that can be used by the Lambda consumer to communicate with the primary cluster.

  • TargetNeptuneClusterEndpoint   –   The cluster endpoint (hostname only) of the target backup cluster.

  • TargetAWSRegion   –   The target backup cluster's Amazon region, such as us-east-1). You must provide this parameter only when the Amazon region of the target backup cluster is different from the region of the Neptune source cluster, as in the case of cross-region replication. If the source and target regions are the same, this parameter is optional.

    Note that if the TargetAWSRegion value is not a valid Amazon region that Neptune supports, the process fails.

  • VPC   –   The ID of the primary cluster's VPC.

All other parameters can be left with their default values.

Once the Amazon CloudFormation template has been deployed, Neptune will begin replicating any changes from the primary cluster to the backup cluster. You can monitor this replication in the CloudWatch logs generated by the Lambda consumer function.

Other considerations

  • If you need to use IAM authentication between the primary and backup clusters, you can also set it up when you invokde the Amazon CloudFormation template.

  • If encryption at rest is enabled on your primary cluster, consider how to manage the associated KMS keys when copying the snapshot across to the target region and associate a new KMS key in the target region.

  • A best practice is to use DNS CNAMEs in front of the Neptune endpoints used in your applications. Then, if you need to manually failover to the target backup cluster, these CNAMEs can be changed to point to the target cluster and/or instance endpoints.