从 AWS X-Ray 获取数据 - AWS X-Ray
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从 AWS X-Ray 获取数据

AWS X-Ray 处理您发送给它的跟踪数据,以在 JSON 中生成完整跟踪、跟踪摘要和服务图。可以使用 AWS CLI 直接从 API 中检索生成的数据。

检索服务图

您可以使用 GetServiceGraph API 来检索 JSON 服务图。该 API 需要开始时间和结束时间,您可以使用 date 命令从 Linux 终端计算这些时间。

$ date +%s 1499394617

date +%s 显示日期 (秒数)。使用该数字作为结束时间,并从中减去一个时间可得到开始时间。

例 用于检索最后 10 分钟的服务图的脚本

EPOCH=$(date +%s) aws xray get-service-graph --start-time $(($EPOCH-600)) --end-time $EPOCH

以下示例显示了一个包含 4 个节点的服务图,其中包括一个客户端节点、一个 EC2 实例、一个 DynamoDB 表和一个 Amazon SNS 主题。

例 GetServiceGraph 输出

{ "Services": [ { "ReferenceId": 0, "Name": "xray-sample.elasticbeanstalk.com", "Names": [ "xray-sample.elasticbeanstalk.com" ], "Type": "client", "State": "unknown", "StartTime": 1528317567.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "Edges": [ { "ReferenceId": 2, "StartTime": 1528317567.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 3, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 1, "TotalCount": 1 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 4, "TotalResponseTime": 0.273 }, "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.005, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.015, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.157, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.096, "Count": 1 } ], "Aliases": [] } ] }, { "ReferenceId": 1, "Name": "awseb-e-dixzws4s9p-stack-StartupSignupsTable-4IMSMHAYX2BA", "Names": [ "awseb-e-dixzws4s9p-stack-StartupSignupsTable-4IMSMHAYX2BA" ], "Type": "AWS::DynamoDB::Table", "State": "unknown", "StartTime": 1528317583.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "Edges": [], "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 2, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 2, "TotalResponseTime": 0.12 }, "DurationHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.044, "Count": 1 } ], "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.044, "Count": 1 } ] }, { "ReferenceId": 2, "Name": "xray-sample.elasticbeanstalk.com", "Names": [ "xray-sample.elasticbeanstalk.com" ], "Root": true, "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance", "State": "active", "StartTime": 1528317567.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "Edges": [ { "ReferenceId": 1, "StartTime": 1528317567.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 2, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 2, "TotalResponseTime": 0.12 }, "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.044, "Count": 1 } ], "Aliases": [] }, { "ReferenceId": 3, "StartTime": 1528317567.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 2, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 2, "TotalResponseTime": 0.125 }, "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.049, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 } ], "Aliases": [] } ], "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 3, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 1, "TotalCount": 1 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 4, "TotalResponseTime": 0.273 }, "DurationHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.005, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.015, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.157, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.096, "Count": 1 } ], "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.005, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.015, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.157, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.096, "Count": 1 } ] }, { "ReferenceId": 3, "Name": "SNS", "Names": [ "SNS" ], "Type": "AWS::SNS", "State": "unknown", "StartTime": 1528317583.0, "EndTime": 1528317589.0, "Edges": [], "SummaryStatistics": { "OkCount": 2, "ErrorStatistics": { "ThrottleCount": 0, "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "FaultStatistics": { "OtherCount": 0, "TotalCount": 0 }, "TotalCount": 2, "TotalResponseTime": 0.125 }, "DurationHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.049, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 } ], "ResponseTimeHistogram": [ { "Value": 0.049, "Count": 1 }, { "Value": 0.076, "Count": 1 } ] } ] }

按组检索服务图

要根据组的内容调用服务图,请包括 groupNamegroupARN。以下示例显示了对名为 Example1 的组的服务图调用。

例 用于按组 Example1 的名称检索服务图的脚本

aws xray get-service-graph --group-name "Example1"

检索跟踪

您可以使用 GetTraceSummaries API 获取跟踪摘要列表。跟踪摘要包括可用于完整标识要下载的跟踪的信息,包括注释、请求和响应信息以及 ID。

调用 aws xray get-trace-summaries 时有两个 TimeRangeType 标志可用:

  • TraceId – 默认 GetTraceSummaries 搜索使用 TraceID 时间,并返回在计算的 [start_time, end_time) 范围内开始的跟踪。此时间戳范围是根据 TraceID 中的时间戳的编码计算的,也可以手动定义。

  • 事件时间 – 为了搜索随时间推移发生的事件,AWS X-Ray 允许使用事件时间戳来搜索跟踪。事件时间返回 [start_time, end_time) 范围内活动的跟踪,而无论跟踪何时开始。

使用 aws xray get-trace-summaries 命令获取跟踪摘要列表。以下命令使用默认的 TraceId 时间获取过去 1 到 2 分钟内的跟踪摘要列表。

例 用于获取跟踪摘要的脚本

EPOCH=$(date +%s) aws xray get-trace-summaries --start-time $(($EPOCH-120)) --end-time $(($EPOCH-60))

例 GetTraceSummaries 输出

{ "TraceSummaries": [ { "HasError": false, "Http": { "HttpStatus": 200, "ClientIp": "205.255.255.183", "HttpURL": "http://scorekeep.elasticbeanstalk.com/api/session", "UserAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/59.0.3071.115 Safari/537.36", "HttpMethod": "POST" }, "Users": [], "HasFault": false, "Annotations": {}, "ResponseTime": 0.084, "Duration": 0.084, "Id": "1-59602606-a43a1ac52fc7ee0eea12a82c", "HasThrottle": false }, { "HasError": false, "Http": { "HttpStatus": 200, "ClientIp": "205.255.255.183", "HttpURL": "http://scorekeep.elasticbeanstalk.com/api/user", "UserAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/59.0.3071.115 Safari/537.36", "HttpMethod": "POST" }, "Users": [ { "UserName": "5M388M1E" } ], "HasFault": false, "Annotations": { "UserID": [ { "AnnotationValue": { "StringValue": "5M388M1E" } } ], "Name": [ { "AnnotationValue": { "StringValue": "Ola" } } ] }, "ResponseTime": 3.232, "Duration": 3.232, "Id": "1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496", "HasThrottle": false } ], "ApproximateTime": 1499473304.0, "TracesProcessedCount": 2 }

使用来自输出的跟踪 ID 通过 BatchGetTraces API 来检索完整跟踪。

例 BatchGetTraces 命令

$ aws xray batch-get-traces --trace-ids 1-596025b4-7170afe49f7aa708b1dd4a6b

例 BatchGetTraces 输出

{ "Traces": [ { "Duration": 3.232, "Segments": [ { "Document": "{\"id\":\"1fb07842d944e714\",\"name\":\"random-name\",\"start_time\":1.499473411677E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414572E9,\"parent_id\":\"0c544c1b1bbff948\",\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200}},\"aws\":{\"request_id\":\"ac086670-6373-11e7-a174-f31b3397f190\"},\"trace_id\":\"1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496\",\"origin\":\"AWS::Lambda\",\"resource_arn\":\"arn:aws:lambda:us-west-2:123456789012:function:random-name\"}", "Id": "1fb07842d944e714" }, { "Document": "{\"id\":\"194fcc8747581230\",\"name\":\"Scorekeep\",\"start_time\":1.499473411562E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414794E9,\"http\":{\"request\":{\"url\":\"http://scorekeep.elasticbeanstalk.com/api/user\",\"method\":\"POST\",\"user_agent\":\"Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.1; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/59.0.3071.115 Safari/537.36\",\"client_ip\":\"205.251.233.183\"},\"response\":{\"status\":200}},\"aws\":{\"elastic_beanstalk\":{\"version_label\":\"app-abb9-170708_002045\",\"deployment_id\":406,\"environment_name\":\"scorekeep-dev\"},\"ec2\":{\"availability_zone\":\"us-west-2c\",\"instance_id\":\"i-0cd9e448944061b4a\"},\"xray\":{\"sdk_version\":\"1.1.2\",\"sdk\":\"X-Ray for Java\"}},\"service\":{},\"trace_id\":\"1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496\",\"user\":\"5M388M1E\",\"origin\":\"AWS::ElasticBeanstalk::Environment\",\"subsegments\":[{\"id\":\"0c544c1b1bbff948\",\"name\":\"Lambda\",\"start_time\":1.499473411629E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414572E9,\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200,\"content_length\":14}},\"aws\":{\"log_type\":\"None\",\"status_code\":200,\"function_name\":\"random-name\",\"invocation_type\":\"RequestResponse\",\"operation\":\"Invoke\",\"request_id\":\"ac086670-6373-11e7-a174-f31b3397f190\",\"resource_names\":[\"random-name\"]},\"namespace\":\"aws\"},{\"id\":\"071684f2e555e571\",\"name\":\"## UserModel.saveUser\",\"start_time\":1.499473414581E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414769E9,\"metadata\":{\"debug\":{\"test\":\"Metadata string from UserModel.saveUser\"}},\"subsegments\":[{\"id\":\"4cd3f10b76c624b4\",\"name\":\"DynamoDB\",\"start_time\":1.49947341469E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414769E9,\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200,\"content_length\":57}},\"aws\":{\"table_name\":\"scorekeep-user\",\"operation\":\"UpdateItem\",\"request_id\":\"MFQ8CGJ3JTDDVVVASUAAJGQ6NJ82F738BOB4KQNSO5AEMVJF66Q9\",\"resource_names\":[\"scorekeep-user\"]},\"namespace\":\"aws\"}]}]}", "Id": "194fcc8747581230" }, { "Document": "{\"id\":\"00f91aa01f4984fd\",\"name\":\"random-name\",\"start_time\":1.49947341283E9,\"end_time\":1.49947341457E9,\"parent_id\":\"1fb07842d944e714\",\"aws\":{\"function_arn\":\"arn:aws:lambda:us-west-2:123456789012:function:random-name\",\"resource_names\":[\"random-name\"],\"account_id\":\"123456789012\"},\"trace_id\":\"1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496\",\"origin\":\"AWS::Lambda::Function\",\"subsegments\":[{\"id\":\"e6d2fe619f827804\",\"name\":\"annotations\",\"start_time\":1.499473413012E9,\"end_time\":1.499473413069E9,\"annotations\":{\"UserID\":\"5M388M1E\",\"Name\":\"Ola\"}},{\"id\":\"b29b548af4d54a0f\",\"name\":\"SNS\",\"start_time\":1.499473413112E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414071E9,\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200}},\"aws\":{\"operation\":\"Publish\",\"region\":\"us-west-2\",\"request_id\":\"a2137970-f6fc-5029-83e8-28aadeb99198\",\"retries\":0,\"topic_arn\":\"arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:123456789012:awseb-e-ruag3jyweb-stack-NotificationTopic-6B829NT9V5O9\"},\"namespace\":\"aws\"},{\"id\":\"2279c0030c955e52\",\"name\":\"Initialization\",\"start_time\":1.499473412064E9,\"end_time\":1.499473412819E9,\"aws\":{\"function_arn\":\"arn:aws:lambda:us-west-2:123456789012:function:random-name\"}}]}", "Id": "00f91aa01f4984fd" }, { "Document": "{\"id\":\"17ba309b32c7fbaf\",\"name\":\"DynamoDB\",\"start_time\":1.49947341469E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414769E9,\"parent_id\":\"4cd3f10b76c624b4\",\"inferred\":true,\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200,\"content_length\":57}},\"aws\":{\"table_name\":\"scorekeep-user\",\"operation\":\"UpdateItem\",\"request_id\":\"MFQ8CGJ3JTDDVVVASUAAJGQ6NJ82F738BOB4KQNSO5AEMVJF66Q9\",\"resource_names\":[\"scorekeep-user\"]},\"trace_id\":\"1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496\",\"origin\":\"AWS::DynamoDB::Table\"}", "Id": "17ba309b32c7fbaf" }, { "Document": "{\"id\":\"1ee3c4a523f89ca5\",\"name\":\"SNS\",\"start_time\":1.499473413112E9,\"end_time\":1.499473414071E9,\"parent_id\":\"b29b548af4d54a0f\",\"inferred\":true,\"http\":{\"response\":{\"status\":200}},\"aws\":{\"operation\":\"Publish\",\"region\":\"us-west-2\",\"request_id\":\"a2137970-f6fc-5029-83e8-28aadeb99198\",\"retries\":0,\"topic_arn\":\"arn:aws:sns:us-west-2:123456789012:awseb-e-ruag3jyweb-stack-NotificationTopic-6B829NT9V5O9\"},\"trace_id\":\"1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496\",\"origin\":\"AWS::SNS\"}", "Id": "1ee3c4a523f89ca5" } ], "Id": "1-59602603-23fc5b688855d396af79b496" } ], "UnprocessedTraceIds": [] }

完整跟踪为每个分段包括一个文档,该文档根据收到的具有相同跟踪 ID 的所有分段文档编译。这些文档并不等同于您的应用程序发送到 X-Ray 的原样数据。相反,它们表示由 X-Ray 服务生成的、经过处理的文档。X-Ray 将编译您的应用程序发送的分段文档,并删除不符合分段文档架构的数据,从而创建完整的跟踪文档。

X-Ray 还会为自身不发送分段的服务的下游调用创建推断分段。例如,当您通过分析过的客户端调用 DynamoDB 时,X-Ray 开发工具包会记录一个子分段,其中包含从它的视角看到的调用详细信息。但是,DynamoDB 不会发送对应的分段。X-Ray 将使用子分段中的信息创建推断分段以表示服务地图中的 DynamoDB 资源,然后将该资源添加到跟踪文档。

要从 API 获得多个跟踪,您需要跟踪 ID 的列表,您可以使用 AWS CLI 查询get-trace-summaries 的输出中提取这些 ID。将该列表重定向到 batch-get-traces 的输入以获取特定时间段的完整跟踪。

例 用于获取一分钟时间段内完整跟踪的脚本

EPOCH=$(date +%s) TRACEIDS=$(aws xray get-trace-summaries --start-time $(($EPOCH-120)) --end-time $(($EPOCH-60)) --query 'TraceSummaries[*].Id' --output text) aws xray batch-get-traces --trace-ids $TRACEIDS --query 'Traces[*]'

检索和细化根本原因分析

在使用 GetTraceSummaries API 生成跟踪摘要后,可以采用 JSON 格式重用部分跟踪摘要,以创建基于根本原因的细化筛选表达式。请参阅下面的示例了解细化步骤的演练。

例 示例 GetTraceSummaries 输出 - 响应时间根本原因部分

{ "Services": [ { "Name": "GetWeatherData", "Names": ["GetWeatherData"], "AccountId": 123456789012, "Type": null, "Inferred": false, "EntityPath": [ { "Name": "GetWeatherData", "Coverage": 1.0, 'Remote": false }, { "Name": "get_temperature", "Coverage": 0.8, "Remote": false } ] }, { "Name": "GetTemperature", "Names": ["GetTemperature"], "AccountId": 123456789012, "Type": null, "Inferred": false, "EntityPath": [ { "Name": "GetTemperature", "Coverage": 0.7, "Remote": false } ] } ] }

通过编辑并忽略上述输出,此 JSON 可以成为匹配的根本原因实体的筛选条件。对于 JSON 中存在的每个字段,任何候选匹配都必须是完全匹配,否则不会返回跟踪。删除的字段将成为通配符值,且采用可与筛选表达式查询结构兼容的格式。

例 重新格式化的响应时间根本原因

{ "Services": [ { "Name": "GetWeatherData", "EntityPath": [ { "Name": "GetWeatherData" }, { "Name": "get_temperature" } ] }, { "Name": "GetTemperature", "EntityPath": [ { "Name": "GetTemperature" } ] } ] }

随后通过调用 rootcause.json = #[{}] 将此 JSON 用作筛选表达式的一部分。有关使用筛选表达式进行查询的更多详细信息,请参阅筛选表达式一章。

例 示例 JSON 筛选条件

rootcause.json = #[{ "Services": [ { "Name": "GetWeatherData", "EntityPath": [{ "Name": "GetWeatherData" }, { "Name": "get_temperature" } ] }, { "Name": "GetTemperature", "EntityPath": [ { "Name": "GetTemperature" } ] } ] }]