How Amazon Config Works - Amazon Config
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How Amazon Config Works

When you turn on Amazon Config, it first discovers the supported Amazon resources that exist in your account and generates a configuration item for each resource.

Amazon Config also generates configuration items when the configuration of a resource changes, and it maintains historical records of the configuration items of your resources from the time you start the configuration recorder. By default, Amazon Config creates configuration items for every supported resource in the region. If you don't want Amazon Config to create configuration items for all supported resources, you can specify the resource types that you want it to track.

Before specifying a resource type for Amazon Config to track, check Resource Coverage by Region Availability to see if the resource type is supported in the Amazon Region where you are setting up Amazon Config. If a resource type is supported by Amazon Config in at least one Region, you can enable the recording of that resource type in all Regions supported by Amazon Config, even if the specified resource type is not supported the Amazon Region where you are setting up Amazon Config.

Amazon Config keeps track of all changes to your resources by invoking the Describe or the List API call for each resource in your account. The service uses those same API calls to capture configuration details for all related resources.

For example, removing an egress rule from a VPC security group causes Amazon Config to invoke a Describe API call on the security group. Amazon Config then invokes a Describe API call on all of the instances associated with the security group. The updated configurations of the security group (the resource) and of each instance (the related resources) are recorded as configuration items and delivered in a configuration stream to an Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) bucket.

Amazon Config also tracks the configuration changes that were not initiated by the API. Amazon Config examines the resource configurations periodically and generates configuration items for the configurations that have changed.

If you are using Amazon Config rules, Amazon Config continuously evaluates your Amazon resource configurations for desired settings. Depending on the rule, Amazon Config will evaluate your resources either in response to configuration changes or periodically. Each rule is associated with an Amazon Lambda function, which contains the evaluation logic for the rule. When Amazon Config evaluates your resources, it invokes the rule's Amazon Lambda function. The function returns the compliance status of the evaluated resources. If a resource violates the conditions of a rule, Amazon Config flags the resource and the rule as noncompliant. When the compliance status of a resource changes, Amazon Config sends a notification to your Amazon SNS topic. The following image displays an overview of how Amazon Config works.

      How Amazon Config works.

Deliver Configuration Items

Amazon Config can deliver configuration items through one of the following channels:

Amazon S3 Bucket

Amazon Config tracks changes in the configuration of your Amazon resources, and it regularly sends updated configuration details to an Amazon S3 bucket that you specify. For each resource type that Amazon Config records, it sends a configuration history file every six hours. Each configuration history file contains details about the resources that changed in that six-hour period. Each file includes resources of one type, such as Amazon EC2 instances or Amazon EBS volumes. If no configuration changes occur, Amazon Config does not send a file.

Amazon Config sends a configuration snapshot to your Amazon S3 bucket when you use the deliver-config-snapshot command with the Amazon CLI, or when you use the DeliverConfigSnapshot action with the Amazon Config API. A configuration snapshot contains configuration details for all resources that Amazon Config records in your Amazon account. The configuration history file and configuration snapshot are in JSON format.


Amazon Config only delivers the configuration history files and configuration snapshots to the specified S3 bucket; Amazon Config doesn't modify the lifecycle policies for objects in the S3 bucket. You can use lifecycle policies to specify whether you want to delete or archive objects to Amazon S3 Glacier. For more information, see Managing Lifecycle Configuration in the Amazon Simple Storage Service User Guide. You can also see the Archiving Amazon S3 Data to S3 Glacier blog post.

Amazon SNS Topic

An Amazon Simple Notification Service (Amazon SNS) topic is a communication channel that Amazon SNS uses to deliver messages (or notifications) to subscribing endpoints such as an email address or clients. Other types of Amazon SNS notifications include push notification messages to apps on mobile phones, Short Message Service (SMS) notifications to SMS-enabled mobile phones and smart phones, and HTTP POST requests. For best results, use Amazon SQS as the notification endpoint for the SNS topic and then process the information in the notification programmatically.

Amazon Config uses the Amazon SNS topic that you specify to send you notifications. The type of notification that you are receiving is indicated by the value for the messageType key in the message body, as in the following example:

"messageType": "ConfigurationHistoryDeliveryCompleted"

The notifications can be any of the following message types:


The compliance type of a resource that Amazon Config evaluates has changed. The compliance type indicates whether the resource complies with a specific Amazon Config rule, and it is represented by the ComplianceType key in the message. The message includes newEvaluationResult and oldEvaluationResult objects for comparison.


Amazon Config started evaluating your rule against the specified resources.


Amazon Config started delivering the configuration snapshot to your Amazon S3 bucket. The name of the Amazon S3 bucket is provided for the s3Bucket key in the message.


Amazon Config successfully delivered the configuration snapshot to your Amazon S3 bucket.


Amazon Config failed to deliver the configuration snapshot to your Amazon S3 bucket.


Amazon Config successfully delivered the configuration history to your Amazon S3 bucket.


A resource has been created, deleted, or changed in configuration. This message includes the details of the configuration item that Amazon Config creates for this change, and it includes the type of change. These notifications are delivered within minutes of a change and are collectively known as the configuration stream.


This message type is delivered when a configuration item change notification exceeded the maximum size allowed by Amazon SNS. The message includes a summary of the configuration item. With the exception of SMS messages, Amazon SNS messages can contain up to 256 KB of text data, including XML, JSON, and unformatted text. You can view the complete notification in the specified Amazon S3 bucket location.


Amazon Config failed to deliver the oversized configuration item change notification to your Amazon S3 bucket.

For example notifications, see Notifications that Amazon Config Sends to an Amazon SNS topic.

For more information about Amazon SNS, see the Amazon Simple Notification Service Developer Guide.