Amazon SCT Action Code Index - SQL Server to Aurora PostgreSQL Migration Playbook
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Amazon SCT Action Code Index

The following table shows the icons we use to describe the automation levels of Amazon Schema Conversion Tool (Amazon SCT) and Amazon Database Migration Service (Amazon DMS).

Automation level icon Description


                              Five star automation level

Full automation. Amazon SCT performs fully automatic conversion, no manual conversion needed.


                              Four star automation level

High automation. Minor, simple manual conversions may be needed.


                              Three star automation level

Medium automation. Low-medium complexity manual conversions may be needed.


                              Two star automation level

Low automation. Medium-high complexity manual conversions may be needed.


                              One star automation level

Very low automation. High risk or complex manual conversions may be needed.


                              No automation

No automation. Not currently supported by Amazon SCT, manual conversion is required for this feature.

The following sections list the Amazon Schema Conversion Tool Action codes for topics that are covered in this playbook.

Note

The links in the table point to the Microsoft SQL Server topic pages, which are immediately followed by the PostgreSQL pages for the same topics.

Creating Tables


               Four star automation level

Amazon SCT automatically converts the most commonly used constructs of the CREATE TABLE statement as both SQL Server and Amazon Aurora PostgreSQL-Compatible Edition (Aurora PostgreSQL) support the entry level American National Standards Institute (ANSI) compliance. These items include table names, containing security schema or database, column names, basic column data types, column and table constraints, column default values, primary, UNIQUE, and foreign keys. Some changes may be required for computed columns and global temporary tables.

For more information, see Creating Tables.

Action code Action message

7659

If you use recursion, make sure that table variables in your source database and temporary tables in your target database have the same scope.

7665

PostgreSQL doesn’t support FILESTREAM clauses. Amazon SCT skips FILESTREAM clauses in the converted code.

7678

Amazon SCT replaced computed columns with regular columns in the converted code.

7679

Amazon SCT replaced computed columns with triggers in the converted code.

7680

PostgreSQL doesn’t support global temporary tables.

7812

Make sure that you remove the temporary table before the end of the function.

7835

PostgreSQL doesn’t support CREATE TABLE statements with the AS FileTable option.

Data Types


               Four star automation level

Data type syntax and rules are very similar between SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL and most are converted automatically by Amazon SCT. Note that date and time handling paradigms are different for SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL and require manual verification or conversion. Also note that due to differences in data type behavior between SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL, manual verification and strict testing are highly recommended.

For more information, see Data Types.

Action code Action message

7657

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the hierarchyid data type.

7658

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the sql_variant data type.

7662

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the geography data type.

7664

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the geometry data type.

7690

PostgreSQL doesn’t support table types.

7706

Amazon SCT can’t convert the declaration of a variable of the unsupported %s data type.

7707

Amazon SCT can’t convert the usage of a variable of the unsupported %s data type.

7708

Amazon SCT can’t convert the usage of the unsupported %s data type.

7773

Amazon SCT can’t convert arithmetic operations with dates.

7775

Converted code might lose accuracy compared to the source code.

Collations


               No automation

The collation paradigms of SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL are significantly different. Amazon SCT can’t migrate collations automatically to PostgreSQL.

For more information, see SQL Server Collations and PostgreSQL Encoding.

Action code Action message

7646

Amazon SCT can’t convert collations.

PIVOT and UNPIVOT


               No automation

Aurora PostgreSQL version 10 doesn’t support PIVOT and UNPIVOT clauses. Amazon SCT can’t automatically convert PIVOT and UNPIVOT clauses.

For more information, see PIVOT and UNPIVOT.

Action code Action message

7905

PostgreSQL doesn’t support PIVOT clauses for SELECT statements.

7906

PostgreSQL doesn’t support UNPIVOT clauses for SELECT statements.

TOP and FETCH


               Four star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL supports the non-ANSI compliant but popular with other engines LIMIT…​ OFFSET operator for paging results sets. Amazon SCT can’t automatically convert some options such as WITH TIES. These options require manual conversion.

For more information, see SQL Server TOP and FETCH and PostgreSQL LIMIT and OFFSET.

Action code Action message

7605

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the WITH TIES argument in TOP clauses.

7796

PostgreSQL doesn’t support TOP clauses in UPDATE statements.

7798

PostgreSQL doesn’t support TOP clauses in DELETE statements.

7799

PostgreSQL doesn’t support TOP clauses in INSERT operators.

Cursors


               Three star automation level

PostgreSQL has PL/pgSQL cursors that enable you to iterate business logic on rows read from the database. They can encapsulate the query and read the query results a few rows at a time. All access to cursors in PL/pgSQL is performed through cursor variables, which are always of the refcursor data type. There are specific options which aren’t supported for automatic conversion by Amazon SCT.

For more information, see Cursors.

Action code Action message

7637

PostgreSQL doesn’t support global cursors.

7639

PostgreSQL doesn’t support dynamic cursors.

7700

Amazon SCT can’t convert the KEYSET option because PostgreSQL doesn’t support changing the membership and order of rows for cursors.

7701

Amazon SCT doesn’t convert the FAST_FORWARD option because this is a default option for cursors in PostgreSQL.

7702

Amazon SCT doesn’t convert the READ_ONLY option because this is a default option for cursors in PostgreSQL.

7704

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the OPTIMISTIC option for cursors.

7705

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the TYPE_WARNING option for cursors.

7803

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the FOR UPDATE option.

Flow Control


               Three star automation level

Although the flow control syntax of SQL Server differs from Aurora PostgreSQL, Amazon SCT can convert most constructs automatically including loops, command blocks, and delays. Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t support the GOTO and WAITFOR TIME commands, which require manual conversion.

For more information, see SQL Server Flow Control and PostgreSQL Control Structures.

Action code Action message

7628

PostgreSQL doesn’t support GOTO statements.

7691

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the WAITFOR TIME feature.

7801

Make sure that your table isn’t locked by an open cursor.

7802

Make sure that you delete the table that you created within the procedure before the end of the procedure.

7810

PostgreSQL doesn’t support SET NOCOUNT OFF statements.

7821

Amazon SCT can’t convert the WAITFOR operator with a variable.

7826

Amazon SCT can’t convert the default value of the DateTime variable.

7827

Amazon SCT can’t convert default values.

Transaction Isolation


               Three star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL supports the four transaction isolation levels specified in the SQL:92 standard: READ UNCOMMITTED, READ COMMITTED, REPEATABLE READ, and SERIALIZABLE, all of which are automatically converted by Amazon SCT. Also, Amazon SCT converts BEGIN / COMMIT and ROLLBACK commands that use slightly different syntax. Manual conversion is required for named, marked, and delayed durability transactions that aren’t supported by Aurora PostgreSQL.

For more information, see Transactions.

Action code Action message

7807

Amazon SCT can’t convert the transaction management command. PostgreSQL doesn’t support explicit transaction management commands such as BEGIN TRAN, SAVE TRAN in functions.

Stored Procedures


               Four star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL stored procedures provide very similar functionality to SQL Server stored procedures. You can automatically convert them with Amazon SCT. Manual conversion is required for procedures that use RETURN values and some less common EXECUTE options such as the RECOMPILE and RESULTS SETS.

For more information, see Stored Procedures.

Action code Action message

7640

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXECUTE statements with the WITH RECOMPILE option.

7641

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXECUTE statements with the RESULT SETS UNDEFINED option.

7642

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXECUTE statements with the RESULT SETS NONE option.

7643

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXECUTE statements with the RESULT SETS DEFINITION option.

7672

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXECUTE statements that run a character string.

7695

PostgreSQL doesn’t support support the call of a procedure as a variable.

7800

PostgreSQL doesn’t support result sets in the SQL Server style.

7830

Amazon SCT can’t convert arithmetic operations with the CASE operand.

7838

Amazon SCT can’t convert EXECUTE statements with LOGIN or USER options.

7839

Converted code might not work correctly because of parameter names.

Triggers


               Three star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL supports BEFORE and AFTER triggers for INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. However, Aurora PostgreSQL triggers differ substantially from SQL Server’s triggers. You can migrate the most common use cases with minimal code changes.

For more information, see Triggers.

Action code Action message

7809

PostgreSQL doesn’t support INSTEAD OF triggers on tables.

7832

Amazon SCT can’t convert INSTEAD OF triggers on views.

7909

Amazon SCT can’t convert UPDATE(column) or COLUMNS_UPDATED statements.

MERGE


               No automation

Aurora PostgreSQL version 10 doesn’t support MERGE statements. Amazon SCT can’t automatically convert these statements. Manual conversion is straightforward in most cases.

For more information, see MERGE.

Action code Action message

7915

Converted code might produce different results compared to the source code. Make sure that the constraint includes the %s column.

7916

Amazon SCT can’t emulate the MERGE statement using the INSERT ON CONFLICT statement.

Query Hints


               Three star automation level

You can use Amazon SCT to convert basic query hints such as index hints, except for data manipulation language (DML) statements. Note that specific optimizations used for SQL Server may be completely inapplicable to a new query optimizer. Amazon recommends to start migration testing with all hints removed. Then, selectively apply hints as a last resort if other means such as schema, index, and query optimizations have failed. Plan guides aren’t supported by Aurora PostgreSQL.

For more information, see SQL Server Query Hints and Plan Guides and PostgreSQL DB Query Planning.

Action code Action message

7823

PostgreSQL doesn’t support table hints in DML statements.

Full-Text Search


               No automation

Migrating full-text indexes from SQL Server to Aurora PostgreSQL requires a full rewrite of the code that deals with both creating, managing, and querying full-text indexes. Amazon SCT can’t automatically convert these statements.

For more information, see Full-Text Search.

Action code Action message

7688

PostgreSQL doesn’t support FREETEXT predicates.

Indexes


               Three star automation level

Basic non-clustered indexes, which are the most commonly used type of indexes are automatically migrated by Amazon SCT. In addition, filtered indexes, indexes with included columns, and some SQL Server specific index options can’t be migrated automatically and require manual conversion.

For more information, see Indexes.

Action code Action message

7675

PostgreSQL doesn’t support ASC and DESC sorting options for constraints.

7681

PostgreSQL doesn’t support clustered indexes.

7682

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the INCLUDE option in indexes.

7781

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the PAD_INDEX option in indexes.

7782

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the SORT_IN_TEMPDB option in indexes.

7783

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the IGNORE_DUP_KEY option in indexes.

7784

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the STATISTICS_NORECOMPUTE option in indexes.

7785

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the STATISTICS_INCREMENTAL option in indexes.

7786

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the DROP_EXISTING option in indexes.

7787

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the ONLINE option in indexes.

7788

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the ALLOW_ROW_LOCKS option in indexes.

7789

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the ALLOW_PAGE_LOCKS option in indexes.

7790

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the MAXDOP option in indexes.

7791

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the DATA_COMPRESSION option in indexes.

Partitioning


               Three star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL uses table inheritance, some of the physical aspects of partitioning in SQL Server don’t apply to Aurora PostgreSQL. For example, the concept of file groups and assigning partitions to file groups. Aurora PostgreSQL supports a much richer framework for table partitioning than SQL Server, with many additional options such as hash partitioning, and sub partitioning.

For more information, see SQL Server Partitioning and PostgreSQL Partitions or Table Inheritance.

Action code Action message

7910

PostgreSQL doesn’t support NULL columns for partitioning.

7911

PostgreSQL doesn’t support foreign keys referencing partitioned tables.

7912

PostgreSQL doesn’t support foreign key references from partitioned tables to other tables.

7913

PostgreSQL doesn’t support LEFT partitioning.

7914

Converted code might produce different results compared to the source code.

Backup


               No automation

Migrating from a self-managed backup policy to a Platform as a Service (PaaS) environment such as Aurora PostgreSQL is a complete paradigm shift. You don’t need to worry about transaction logs, file groups, disks running out of space, and purging old backups. Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS) provides guaranteed continuous backup with point in time restore up to 35 days. Therefore, Amazon SCT doesn’t automatically convert backups.

For more information, see Backup and Restore.

Action code Action message

7903

PostgreSQL doesn’t support functionality similar to SQL Server Backup.

SQL Server Mail


               No automation

Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t provide native support for sending emails from the database.

For more information, see Database Mail.

Action code Action message

7900

PostgreSQL doesn’t support functionality similar to SQL Server Database Mail.

Graph


               No automation

Amazon SCT doesn’t convert graph database capabilities.

For more information and potential workarounds, see SQL Server Graph and PostgreSQL Apache AGE Extension.

Action code Action message

7931

Amazon SCT can’t convert SQL Graph tables.

7932

Amazon SCT can’t convert DML constructs of SQL Graph databases.

SQL Server Agent


               No automation

Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t provide functionality similar to SQL Server Agent as an external, cross-instance scheduler. However, Aurora PostgreSQL provides a native, in-database scheduler. It is limited to the cluster scope and can’t be used to manage multiple clusters. Therefore, Amazon SCT can’t automatically convert Agent jobs and alerts.

For more information, see SQL Server Agent and PostgreSQL Scheduled Lambda.

Action code Action message

7902

PostgreSQL doesn’t support functionality similar to SQL Server Agent.

Service Broker


               No automation

Aurora PostgreSQL doesn’t provide a compatible solution to the SQL Server Service Broker. However, you can use DB Links and Amazon Lambda to achieve similar functionality.

For more information, see SQL Server Service Broker Essentials.

Action code Action message

7901

PostgreSQL doesn’t support functionality similar to SQL Server Service Broker.

XML


               Three star automation level

The XML options and features in Aurora PostgreSQL are similar or almost identical to SQL Server XPATH and XQUERY functions. PostgreSQL doesn’t support FOR XML clause, the walkaround for that is using string_agg instead. In some cases, it might be more efficient to use JSON instead of XML.

For more information, see JSON and XML.

Action code Action message

7816

PostgreSQL doesn’t support methods for the XML data type.

7817

PostgreSQL doesn’t support the FOR XML PATH option in SQL queries.

7920

PostgreSQL doesn’t support EXPLICIT mode with FOR XML.

7924

PostgreSQL doesn’t support XPath queries that return multiple elements.

Constraints


               Four star automation level

Constraints feature is almost fully automated and compatible between SQL Server and Aurora PostgreSQL. The differences are: missing SET DEFAULT and check constraint with sub-query.

For more information, see SQL Server Constraints and PostgreSQL Table Constraints.

Action code Action message

7606

PostgreSQL doesn’t support foreign keys that reference partitioned tables.

7675

PostgreSQL doesn’t support ASC and DESC sorting options for constraints.

7825

Amazon SCT removed the default value of the DateTime column.

7915

Converted code might produce different results compared to the source code. Make sure that the constraint includes the %s column.

Linked Servers


               Three star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL supports remote data access from the database. Connectivity between schemas is trivial, but connectivity to other instances require an extension installation.

For more information, see SQL Server Linked Servers and PostgreSQL DBLink and FDWrapper.

Action code Action message

7645

PostgreSQL doesn’t support running pass-through commands on linked servers.

Synonyms


               Three star automation level

Aurora PostgreSQL supports synonyms. If synonyms refer to tables, views, or functions, you can replace them with views or functions to wrap those. It becomes more challenging when synonyms refer to other objects.

For more information, see SQL Server Synonyms and PostgreSQL Views, Types, and Functions.

Action code Action message

7792

PostgreSQL doesn’t support synonyms.