Importing key material step 3: Encrypt the key material - Amazon Key Management Service
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Importing key material step 3: Encrypt the key material

After you download the public key and import token, encrypt your key material using the public key that you downloaded and the wrapping algorithm that you specified. If you need to replace the public key or import token, or change the wrapping algorithm, you must download a new public key and import token. For information about the public keys and wrapping algorithms that Amazon KMS supports, see Select a wrapping public key spec and Select a wrapping algorithm.

The key material must be in binary format. For detailed information, see Requirements for imported key material.

Note

For asymmetric key pairs, encrypt and import only the private key. Amazon KMS derives the public key from the private key.

The following combination is NOT supported: ECC_NIST_P521 key material, the RSA_2048 public wrapping key spec, and an RSAES_OAEP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm.

You cannot directly wrap ECC_NIST_P521 key material with a RSA_2048 public wrapping key. Use a larger wrapping key or an RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm.

Typically, you encrypt your key material when you export it from your hardware security module (HSM) or key management system. For information about how to export key material in binary format, see the documentation for your HSM or key management system. You can also refer to the following section that provides a proof of concept demonstration using OpenSSL.

When you encrypt your key material, use the same wrapping algorithm that you specified when you downloaded the public key and import token. To find the wrapping algorithm that you specified, see the CloudTrail log event for the associated GetParametersForImport request.

Generate key material for testing

The following OpenSSL commands generate key material of each supported type for testing. These examples are provided only for testing and proof-of-concept demonstrations. For production systems, use a more secure method to generate your key material, such as a hardware security module or key management system.

To convert the private keys of asymmetric key pairs into DER-encoded format, pipe the key material generation command to the following openssl pkcs8 command. The topk8 parameter directs OpenSSL to take a private key as input and return a PKCS#8 formatted key. (The default behavior is the opposite.)

openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt

The following commands generate test key material for each of the supported key types.

  • Symmetric encryption key (32 bytes)

    This command generates a 256-bit symmetric key (32-byte random string) and saves it in the PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin file. You do not need to encode this key material.

    openssl rand -out PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin 32

    In China Regions only, you must generate a 128-bit symmetric key (16-byte random string).

    openssl rand -out PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin 16
  • HMAC keys

    This command generates a random byte string of the specified size. You do not need to encode this key material.

    The length of your HMAC key must match the length defined by the key spec of the KMS key. For example, if the KMS key is HMAC_384, you must import a 384-bit (48-byte) key.

    openssl rand -out HMAC_224_PlaintextKey.bin 28 openssl rand -out HMAC_256_PlaintextKey.bin 32 openssl rand -out HMAC_384_PlaintextKey.bin 48 openssl rand -out HMAC_512_PlaintextKey.bin 64
  • RSA private keys

    openssl genpkey -algorithm rsa -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:2048 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > RSA_2048_PrivateKey.der openssl genpkey -algorithm rsa -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:3072 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > RSA_3072_PrivateKey.der openssl genpkey -algorithm rsa -pkeyopt rsa_keygen_bits:4096 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > RSA_4096_PrivateKey.der
  • ECC private keys

    openssl genpkey -algorithm ec -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:P-256 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > ECC_NIST_P256_PrivateKey.der openssl genpkey -algorithm ec -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:P-384 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > ECC_NIST_P384_PrivateKey.der openssl genpkey -algorithm ec -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:P-521 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > ECC_NIST_P521_PrivateKey.der openssl genpkey -algorithm ec -pkeyopt ec_paramgen_curve:secp256k1 | openssl pkcs8 -topk8 -outform der -nocrypt > ECC_SECG_P256K1_PrivateKey.der

Examples of encrypting key material with OpenSSL

The following examples show how to use OpenSSL to encrypt your key material with the public key that you downloaded.

Important

These examples are a proof of concept demonstration only. For production systems, use a more secure method (such as a commercial HSM or key management system) to generate and store your key material.

The following combination is NOT supported: ECC_NIST_P521 key material, the RSA_2048 public wrapping key spec, and an RSAES_OAEP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm.

You cannot directly wrap ECC_NIST_P521 key material with a RSA_2048 public wrapping key. Use a larger wrapping key or an RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm.

RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1

Amazon KMS supports the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1 for symmetric encryption keys (SYMMETRIC_DEFAULT), elliptic curve (ECC) private keys, and HMAC keys.

RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1 is not supported for RSA private keys. Also, you cannot use an RSA_2048 public wrapping key with any RSAES_OAEP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm to wrap an ECC_NIST_P521 (secp521r1) private key. You must use a larger public wrapping key or an RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP wrapping algorithm.

The following example encrypts your key material with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1 wrapping algorithm, and saves it in the EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin file.

In this example:

  • WrappingPublicKey.bin is the file that contains the downloaded wrapping public key.

  • PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin is the file that contains the key material that you are encrypting, such as PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin, HMAC_384_PlaintextKey.bin or ECC_NIST_P521_PrivateKey.der.

$ openssl pkeyutl \ -encrypt \ -in PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin \ -out EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin \ -inkey WrappingPublicKey.bin \ -keyform DER \ -pubin \ -pkeyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep \ -pkeyopt rsa_oaep_md:sha1
RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256

Amazon KMS supports the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256 for symmetric encryption keys (SYMMETRIC_DEFAULT), elliptic curve (ECC) private keys, and HMAC keys.

RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256 is not supported for RSA private keys. Also, you cannot use an RSA_2048 public wrapping key with any RSAES_OAEP_SHA_* wrapping algorithm to wrap an ECC_NIST_P521 (secp521r1) private key. You must use a larger public key or an RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP wrapping algorithm.

The following example encrypts key material with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256 wrapping algorithm, and saves it in the EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin file.

In this example:

  • WrappingPublicKey.bin is the file that contains the downloaded public wrapping key. If you downloaded the public key from the console, this file is named wrappingKey_KMS key_key_ID_timestamp (for example, wrappingKey_f44c4e20-f83c-48f4-adc6-a1ef38829760_0809092909).

  • PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin is the file that contains the key material that you are encrypting, such as PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin, HMAC_384_PlaintextKey.bin, or ECC_NIST_P521_PrivateKey.der.

$ openssl pkeyutl \ -encrypt \ -in PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin \ -out EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin \ -inkey WrappingPublicKey.bin \ -keyform DER \ -pubin \ -pkeyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep \ -pkeyopt rsa_oaep_md:sha256 \ -pkeyopt rsa_mgf1_md:sha256
RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_1

The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_1 wrapping algorithm involves two encryption operations.

  1. Encrypt your key material with an AES symmetric key that you generate and an AES symmetric encryption algorithm.

  2. Encrypt the AES symmetric key that you used with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1 wrapping algorithm.

Amazon KMS supports RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* wrapping algorithms for all supported types of imported key material and all supported public key specs. The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* algorithms are the only wrapping algorithms supported for wrapping RSA key material.

The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_1 wrapping algorithm requires OpenSSL version 3.x or later.

  1. Generate a 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key

    This command generates an AES symmetric encryption key consisting of 256 random bits, and saves it in the aes-key.bin file

    # Generate a 32-byte AES symmetric encryption key $ openssl rand -out aes-key.bin 32
  2. Encrypt your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key

    This command encrypts your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key and saves the encrypted key material in the key-material-wrapped.bin file.

    In this example command:

    • PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin is the file that contains the key material that you are importing, such as PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin, HMAC_384_PlaintextKey.bin, RSA_3072_PrivateKey.der, or ECC_NIST_P521_PrivateKey.der.

    • aes-key.bin is the file that contains 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key that you generated in the previous command.

    # Encrypt your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key $ openssl enc -id-aes256-wrap-pad \ -K "$(xxd -p < aes-key.bin | tr -d '\n')" \ -iv A65959A6 \ -in PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin\ -out key-material-wrapped.bin
  3. Encrypt your AES symmetric encryption key with the public key

    This command encrypts your AES symmetric encryption key with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_1 wrapping algorithm, DER-encodes it, and save it in the aes-key-wrapped.bin file.

    In this example command:

    • WrappingPublicKey.bin is the file that contains the downloaded public wrapping key. If you downloaded the public key from the console, this file is named wrappingKey_KMS key_key_ID_timestamp (for example, wrappingKey_f44c4e20-f83c-48f4-adc6-a1ef38829760_0809092909

    • aes-key.bin is the file that contains 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key that you generated in the first command in this example sequence.

    # Encrypt your AES symmetric encryption key with the downloaded public key $ openssl pkeyutl \ -encrypt \ -in aes-key.bin \ -out aes-key-wrapped.bin \ -inkey WrappingPublicKey.bin \ -keyform DER \ -pubin \ -pkeyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep \ -pkeyopt rsa_oaep_md:sha1 \ -pkeyopt rsa_mgf1_md:sha1
  4. Generate the file to import

    Concatenate the file with the encrypted key material and the file with the encrypted AES key. Save them in the EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin file, which is the file that you'll import in the Step 4: Import the key material.

    In this example command:

    • key-material-wrapped.bin is the file that contains your encrypted key material.

    • aes-key-wrapped.bin is the file that contains the encrypted AES encryption key.

    # Combine the encrypted AES key and encrypted key material in a file $ cat aes-key-wrapped.bin key-material-wrapped.bin > EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin
RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_256

The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_256 wrapping algorithm involves two encryption operations.

  1. Encrypt your key material with an AES symmetric key that you generate and an AES symmetric encryption algorithm.

  2. Encrypt the AES symmetric key that you used with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256 wrapping algorithm.

Amazon KMS supports RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* wrapping algorithms for all supported types of imported key material and all supported public key specs. The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_* algorithms are the only wrapping algorithms supported for wrapping RSA key material.

The RSA_AES_KEY_WRAP_SHA_256 wrapping algorithm requires OpenSSL version 3.x or later.

  1. Generate a 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key

    This command generates an AES symmetric encryption key consisting of 256 random bits, and saves it in the aes-key.bin file

    # Generate a 32-byte AES symmetric encryption key $ openssl rand -out aes-key.bin 32
  2. Encrypt your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key

    This command encrypts your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key and saves the encrypted key material in the key-material-wrapped.bin file.

    In this example command:

    • PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin is the file that contains the key material that you are importing, such as PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin, HMAC_384_PlaintextKey.bin, RSA_3072_PrivateKey.der, or ECC_NIST_P521_PrivateKey.der.

    • aes-key.bin is the file that contains 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key that you generated in the previous command.

    # Encrypt your key material with the AES symmetric encryption key $ openssl enc -id-aes256-wrap-pad \ -K "$(xxd -p < aes-key.bin | tr -d '\n')" \ -iv A65959A6 \ -in PlaintextKeyMaterial.bin\ -out key-material-wrapped.bin
  3. Encrypt your AES symmetric encryption key with the public key

    This command encrypts your AES symmetric encryption key with the public key that you downloaded and the RSAES_OAEP_SHA_256 wrapping algorithm, DER-encodes it, and save it in the aes-key-wrapped.bin file.

    In this example command:

    • WrappingPublicKey.bin is the file that contains the downloaded public wrapping key. If you downloaded the public key from the console, this file is named wrappingKey_KMS key_key_ID_timestamp (for example, wrappingKey_f44c4e20-f83c-48f4-adc6-a1ef38829760_0809092909

    • aes-key.bin is the file that contains 256-bit AES symmetric encryption key that you generated in the first command in this example sequence.

    # Encrypt your AES symmetric encryption key with the downloaded public key $ openssl pkeyutl \ -encrypt \ -in aes-key.bin \ -out aes-key-wrapped.bin \ -inkey WrappingPublicKey.bin \ -keyform DER \ -pubin \ -pkeyopt rsa_padding_mode:oaep \ -pkeyopt rsa_oaep_md:sha256 \ -pkeyopt rsa_mgf1_md:sha256
  4. Generate the file to import

    Concatenate the file with the encrypted key material and the file with the encrypted AES key. Save them in the EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin file, which is the file that you'll import in the Step 4: Import the key material.

    In this example command:

    • key-material-wrapped.bin is the file that contains your encrypted key material.

    • aes-key-wrapped.bin is the file that contains the encrypted AES encryption key.

    # Combine the encrypted AES key and encrypted key material in a file $ cat aes-key-wrapped.bin key-material-wrapped.bin > EncryptedKeyMaterial.bin

Proceed to Step 4: Import the key material.