How Lambda processes records from stream and queue-based event sources - Amazon Lambda
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How Lambda processes records from stream and queue-based event sources

An event source mapping is a Lambda resource that reads items from stream and queue-based services and invokes a function with batches of records. The following services use event source mappings to invoke Lambda functions:

Warning

Lambda event source mappings process each event at least once, and duplicate processing of records can occur. To avoid potential issues related to duplicate events, we strongly recommend that you make your function code idempotent. To learn more, see How do I make my Lambda function idempotent in the Amazon Knowledge Center.

How event source mappings differ from direct triggers

Some Amazon services can directly invoke Lambda functions using triggers. These services push events to Lambda, and the function is invoked immediately when the specified event occurs. Triggers are suitable for discrete events and real-time processing. When you create a trigger using the Lambda console, the console interacts with the corresponding Amazon service to configure the event notification on that service. The trigger is actually stored and managed by the service that generates the events, not by Lambda. Here are some examples of services that use triggers to invoke Lambda functions:

Event source mappings are Lambda resources created and managed within the Lambda service. Event source mappings are designed for processing high-volume streaming data or messages from queues. Processing records from a stream or queue in batches is more efficient than processing records individually.

Batching behavior

By default, an event source mapping batches records together into a single payload that Lambda sends to your function. To fine-tune batching behavior, you can configure a batching window (MaximumBatchingWindowInSeconds) and a batch size (BatchSize). A batching window is the maximum amount of time to gather records into a single payload. A batch size is the maximum number of records in a single batch. Lambda invokes your function when one of the following three criteria is met:

  • The batching window reaches its maximum value. Default batching window behavior varies depending on the specific event source.

    • For Kinesis, DynamoDB, and Amazon SQS event sources: The default batching window is 0 seconds. This means that Lambda sends batches to your function only when either the batch size is met or the payload size limit is reached. To set a batching window, configure MaximumBatchingWindowInSeconds. You can set this parameter to any value from 0 to 300 seconds in increments of 1 second. If you configure a batching window, the next window begins as soon as the previous function invocation completes.

    • For Amazon MSK, self-managed Apache Kafka, Amazon MQ, and Amazon DocumentDB event sources: The default batching window is 500 ms. You can configure MaximumBatchingWindowInSeconds to any value from 0 seconds to 300 seconds in increments of seconds. A batching window begins as soon as the first record arrives.

      Note

      Because you can only change MaximumBatchingWindowInSeconds in increments of seconds, you cannot revert to the 500 ms default batching window after you have changed it. To restore the default batching window, you must create a new event source mapping.

  • The batch size is met. The minimum batch size is 1. The default and maximum batch size depend on the event source. For details about these values, see the BatchSize specification for the CreateEventSourceMapping API operation.

  • The payload size reaches 6 MB. You cannot modify this limit.

The following diagram illustrates these three conditions. Suppose a batching window begins at t = 7 seconds. In the first scenario, the batching window reaches its 40 second maximum at t = 47 seconds after accumulating 5 records. In the second scenario, the batch size reaches 10 before the batching window expires, so the batching window ends early. In the third scenario, the maximum payload size is reached before the batching window expires, so the batching window ends early.

A batching window expires when one of the following three criteria are met: the batching window reaches its maximum value, the batch size is met, or the payload size reaches 6 MB.

Event source mapping API

To manage an event source with the Amazon Command Line Interface (Amazon CLI) or an Amazon SDK, you can use the following API operations: